SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD DECISION DOCUMENT
    Decision Information

Docket Number:  
FD_35557_0

Case Title:  
REASONABLENESS OF BNSF RAILWAY COMPANY COAL DUST MITIGATION TARIFF PROVISIONS

Decision Type:  
Corrected Decision

Deciding Body:  
Entire Board

    Decision Summary

Decision Notes:  
DECISION REFLECTED THE NOTICE ISSUED DECEMBER 17, 2013, WHICH REVISED A CITATION ON PAGE 30 OF THE DECISION.

    Decision Attachments

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    Full Text of Decision

43537                  SERVICE DATE – LATE RELEASE DECEMBER 17, 2013

EB

 

SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD

 

CORRECTED DECISION*

 

Docket No. FD 35557

 

REASONABLENESS OF BNSF RAILWAY COMPANY COAL DUST MITIGATION TARIFF PROVISIONS

 

Digest:[1]  The Board started this proceeding to give coal shippers the opportunity to challenge the “safe harbor” provision of a tariff change by the BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), which requires coal shippers to reduce the amount of coal dust lost from railcars during transit from mines in the Powder River Basin.  The challenged BNSF safe harbor provision states that shippers will be in full compliance with coal loading requirements if they apply one of BNSF’s five approved suppression methods to their railcars after loading them pursuant to the profiling requirement.  Alternatively, shippers may propose equally effective coal suppression methods for BNSF’s approval. 

 

The Board finds the coal shippers challenging the safe harbor have not shown that the coal dust suppression methods set forth in the tariff are unreasonable.  However, the Board finds unenforceable one provision regarding shipper liability for adverse impacts from any approved suppression methods because the language is overly broad and ambiguous. 

 

Decided:  December 11, 2013

 

            Various coal shipper parties request that we find a BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) tariff that requires shippers to take specific loading measures to limit coal dust loss from railcars loaded at mines in the Powder River Basin (PRB) to be an unreasonable practice under 49 U.S.C. § 10702(2).  In this decision, we find that the safe harbor provision in the tariff, with the exception of one sentence referred to as the “liability provision,” is not an unreasonable practice.[2]  We find that the liability provision is an unreasonable practice and must be removed from the tariff. 

 

BACKGROUND

 

In a prior proceeding, the Board instituted a declaratory order proceeding in December 2009 to consider whether provisions of a BNSF tariff requiring shippers to limit the emission of coal dust from railcars was an unreasonable practice.  Ark. Elec. Coop. Corp.—Pet. for Declaratory Order, FD 35305 (STB served Dec. 1, 2009).[3]  In March 2011, the Board issued a decision in that proceeding finding that coal dust emissions from open-top railcars are fouling the ballast and that BNSF may take reasonable steps to suppress these coal dust emissions.  Ark. Elec. Coop. Corp.—Pet. for Declaratory Order (Coal Dust I), FD 35305, slip op. at 6-11 (STB served Mar. 3, 2011).  Notwithstanding, the Board also found that the tariff, when considered as a whole, was not reasonable and, therefore, violated 49 U.S.C. § 10702.  Coal Dust I, slip op. at 11-14.  In particular, the Board found it to be a problem that, under the tariff as drafted, shippers would not know whether their railcars were in compliance with BNSF’s loading requirements even if they employed commercially accepted methods of coal dust suppression.  Id. at 12.  The Board observed that a cost-effective safe harbor provision (i.e., specific coal dust suppression measures that would constitute compliance with the tariff) would significantly alleviate its concerns.  Id.

 

On July 14, 2011, BNSF issued a revision to its tariff  (Price List 6041-B Item 100),[4] which made several changes to the requirements regarding the control of coal dust emissions from trains loaded at mines in the PRB.  First, BNSF changed the measurement standard from a proprietary methodology that the Board questioned in Coal Dust I to a requirement that shippers “take measures to load coal in such a way that any loss in transit of coal dust from the shipper’s loaded coal cars will be reduced by at least 85 percent as compared to loss in transit of coal dust from coal cars where no remedial measures have been taken.”[5]  Second, BNSF added a “safe harbor” provision (Item 100, Sections 3.A and 3.B) under which shippers would be in compliance with the tariff regardless of actual coal dust release.  To come within the safe harbor, shippers must apply one of BNSF’s five approved suppression methods, consisting of application of certain topper agents[6] to their cars after loading them pursuant to the tariff’s profiling requirement.[7]  Alternatively, shippers may submit a different suppression method for approval by BNSF for inclusion in the safe harbor.  The request must include evidence showing that the alternative method reduces coal dust emissions by at least 85%.  Third, BNSF added a liability provision, which provides that “topper agents, devices or appurtenances” used by shippers or their mine agents to control the release of coal dust “shall not adversely impact railroad employees, property, locomotives or owned cars” (Item 100, Section 4).[8]

 

Under the revised tariff, shippers were to begin taking compliance measures by October 1, 2011 (Item 100, Section 2).  In addition, shippers were to provide BNSF with written notice of their compliance efforts at least 30 days before loading cars for shipment by BNSF (Item 100, Section 2). 

 

On August 12, 2011, WCTL filed a petition requesting that the Board reopen the Coal Dust I proceeding, institute mediation, and stay or enjoin the effective date of the new tariff pending Board-supervised mediation.  On August 31, 2011, the Board denied the injunction request.  Ark. Elec. Coop. Corp.—Pet. for Declaratory Order, FD 35305 (STB served Aug. 31, 2011). 

 

On November 22, 2011, the Board issued a decision that denied the requests to reopen the Coal Dust I proceeding and order mediation, but instituted this proceeding as a declaratory order proceeding under 49 U.S.C. § 721 and 5 U.S.C.§ 554(e), to consider the reasonableness of the safe harbor provision in the new tariff.  Ark. Elec. Coop. Corp.—Pet. for Declaratory Order, FD 35305 et al. (STB served Nov. 22, 2011).  The Board stated that this proceeding would allow parties to address issues related to the reasonableness of the safe harbor provision, such as the absence of penalties for noncompliance, the lack of cost sharing, and shipper liability associated with the use of the BNSF-approved topper agents.  Id. at 4 n.5. 

 

Pursuant to a revised procedural schedule adopted by the Board by decision served July 31, 2012,[9] the following parties filed opening evidence and arguments on October 1, 2012:[10]  Arkansas Electric Cooperative Corporation (AECC), BNSF, the National Coal Transportation Association (NCTA), Union Electric Company D/B/A Ameren Missouri (Ameren Missouri), Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP), and the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT).  Coal Shippers made a joint filing.  On October 18, 2012, AECC requested leave to file a supplement to the appendix of its opening filing and submitted that supplement.[11]

 

On November 15, 2012, the following parties filed reply evidence and arguments:  AECC, Ameren Missouri, BNSF, UP, and Coal Shippers.  On December 17, 2012, AECC, Ameren Missouri, BNSF, UP, USDOT, and Coal Shippers filed rebuttal evidence and arguments.

 

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

 

Under 5 U.S.C. § 554(e) and 49 U.S.C. § 721, we have discretion to issue a declaratory order to terminate a controversy or remove uncertainty in a matter related to our subject matter jurisdiction.  The Board set forth the applicable legal standard in Coal Dust I, slip op. at 4-6.  The shippers that are challenging BNSF’s tariff under 49 U.S.C. § 10707(2) bear the burden of proving that the tariff is unreasonable.[12]  Coal Dust I, slip op. at 4.  Whether a particular practice is reasonable depends upon the facts and circumstances of the case.  Id. at 5.  The Board gauges the reasonableness of a practice by analyzing what it views as the most appropriate factors.[13]  The Board’s finding in Coal Dust I that the emission of coal dust from open-top railcars in the PRB is a significant problem informs our analysis of the safe harbor’s reasonableness.  See id. at 6-8.

 

Whether The Board’s Coal Dust I Findings Should Be Reopened

 

The Board instituted this proceeding to give shippers the opportunity to challenge the reasonableness of the safe harbor adopted by BNSF in revised Item 100.  In so doing, we did not reopen for de novo review the findings in Coal Dust I that coal dust emissions from open-top railcars are fouling the ballast and that BNSF may take reasonable steps to suppress these coal dust emissions.  AECC and Coal Shippers effectively ask that we reopen Coal Dust I by arguing that the Board’s fundamental findings in Coal Dust I were wrong.[14]  Reopening requires a showing of material error, changed circumstances, or new evidence that causes us to reconsider the Board’s previous conclusions.  49 U.S.C. § 722(c); 49 C.F.R. § 1115.4; see also Middletown & N.J. R.R.—Lease and Operation Exemption—Norfolk S. Ry., FD 35412, slip op. at 3 (STB served Mar. 27, 2013).  AECC and Coal Shippers [15] have not met this standard for reopening the Board’s Coal Dust I findings. 

 

AECC disputes the Board’s finding in Coal Dust I, slip op. at 7, “that coal dust is a particularly harmful contaminant of ballast that requires corrective action.”  AECC argues that a BNSF witness in the previous proceeding, Dr. Erol Tutumluer, who testified in Coal Dust I that coal dust was more harmful than other ballast foulants, has changed his position and now considers clay to be the source of instability.[16]  Coal Shippers and AECC also argue that the Board should not have relied on USDOT’s conclusions about the harmful effects of coal dust on ballast because USDOT cited studies that did not involve coal dust.[17]    

 

BNSF, UP, and USDOT argue that the Board should not reconsider its conclusion about coal dust’s harms.  BNSF and UP argue that Dr. Tutumluer has not retracted his conclusion about coal dust and has made further statements supporting and affirming the evidence he submitted in the Coal Dust I proceeding.[18]  BNSF argues that USDOT’s conclusion about coal dust’s harmful effects on ballast integrity was well-supported, citing witness testimony from the Coal Dust I hearing.[19]  BNSF cites various sources that it claims support the conclusion that coal dust is a particularly harmful ballast foulant.[20]  USDOT affirms its prior conclusion that coal dust threatens rail safety more than other foulants[21] and argues that the Board’s conclusion about coal dust was supported by the record.[22]  BNSF and UP argue that USDOT’s position is well supported by witness testimony[23] and scientific studies and sources.[24]

 

AECC and Coal Shippers have offered no basis to reconsider the Board’s prior finding.  In Coal Dust I, slip op. at 7, the Board found that “[u]nlike some other foulants, coal dust is not necessarily visible prior to a track failure, and coal dust’s high volume relative to its weight and high moisture-absorbing capacity make it a unique problem.”  AECC has not refuted this finding.  And contrary to AECC’s claim,[25] Dr. Tutumluer did not change his opinion that coal dust threatens ballast integrity.  The documents submitted by AECC show that Dr. Tutumluer studied the interaction between coal dust and clay soil.[26]  He stated that coal dust is a moisture-sensitive fouling agent that affects railroad ballast,[27] which is consistent with the Board’s conclusion in Coal Dust I, slip op. at 7 (“[C]oal dust’s . . . high moisture-absorbing capacity make[s] it a unique problem.”).  Dr. Tutumluer did not retract his previous conclusions about coal dust’s ballast-fouling properties.[28]  To the extent that Dr. Tutumluer’s research suggests that certain types of soil aggravate the ballast problems caused by coal dust, the suggestion does not negate the Board’s finding that coal dust emissions were threatening ballast integrity.  BNSF cannot change the soil composition along the PRB, but the amount of coal dust emitted from open-top railcars can be reduced.  

 

Moreover, the Board’s conclusion that coal dust is a harmful ballast foulant was well supported by the entire record in Coal Dust I.[29]  The Board explained the effects of ballast fouling and why coal dust in particular is a harmful foulant.  Coal Dust I, slip op. at 6-7.  In addition, the Board did not err by giving weight to USDOT’s conclusion, based on Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) expertise on rail safety, about the harms of coal dust fouling.  USDOT’s filings from the Coal Dust I proceeding show that it reviewed the parties’ evidence,[30] engineering texts, and its own research on the mechanisms of track buckling.[31]  USDOT explained its conclusion that coal dust was a particularly harmful ballast foulant based on this review and FRA’s general knowledge of track structure and ballast fouling combined with the particular properties of coal dust.[32]  In particular, USDOT explained that coal dust “has especially low strength compared to other common fouling agents (like granite or silt or clay) and [coal dust] absorbs water very well.”[33]  USDOT also noted that, because coal dust has a lower density than most other ballast foulants, “coal dust accelerates the destabilization of ballast much more than other fouling materials . . . .” [34]  AECC and Coal Shippers have not refuted USDOT’s analysis.    

 

Next, AECC argues that BNSF’s operating, maintenance, and construction practices contribute to coal dust loss, and it is therefore BNSF’s responsibility to prevent emissions by modifying these practices.[35]  BNSF and UP reply that the Board rejected this argument in Coal Dust I by concluding that BNSF could address coal dust loss through reasonable loading requirements and the issue should not be revisited in this proceeding.[36]  USDOT states that “[a]lthough railroads retain the responsibility to ensure that tracks are properly maintained, shippers should be held responsible . . . to ensure that railcars are securely loaded”[37] and emphasizes that this proceeding should focus on the reasonableness of the safe harbor.[38]  

 

AECC has not shown material error, changed circumstances, or new evidence that would cause us to reconsider the Board’s Coal Dust I conclusion that BNSF may establish reasonable loading requirements to reduce coal dust loss, slip op. at 11, or the Board’s finding that BNSF reasonably concluded that calculated containment efforts are superior to maintenance alone, slip op. at 9-10.  The Board addressed this issue in Coal Dust I, slip op. at 9-11, by explaining that BNSF may establish loading requirements, notwithstanding AECC’s argument there that operating, maintenance, and construction practices cause coal dust loss and that railroads should be responsible for preventing that loss.[39] 

 

In Coal Dust I, slip op. at 5-6, the shippers’ evidence did not address all the costs of increased maintenance.  In this proceeding, shipper parties again ask the Board to consider construction, operations, and maintenance changes as a more efficient alternative to containment.  As discussed below, the record in this proceeding also does not contain sufficient evidence to compare the costs of construction, operations, and maintenance changes to the costs of containment.   Further, AECC’s evidence does not convince us that there are fixes that BNSF has overlooked that would significantly reduce the emission of coal dust from open-top railcars and make it unreasonable to apply topper agents.  Our role is to decide whether the particular approach taken by BNSF to curtail coal dust emissions is unreasonable.  We therefore turn to the question of whether BNSF seeks to impose unreasonable loading conditions with this tariff.

 

Whether the “Safe Harbor” Provision Is Unreasonable

 

The shipper parties argue that the safe harbor is not reasonable because the coal dust suppression measures specified in the tariff do not effectively reduce coal dust emissions, do not provide certainty of compliance to shippers, are unreasonably expensive, and cause environmental and safety harms.  We find that the shipper parties have not shown that the safe harbor is unreasonable.  Further, we find that BNSF has submitted evidence showing that spraying loaded coal cars with topper agents, combined with load profiling, as required to satisfy the safe harbor provision of the tariff, substantially reduces the emission of coal dust.

 

Effectiveness of topper agents to reduce coal dust loss.  The shipper parties argue that topper agents are not effective in suppressing coal dust emissions from open-top railcars.  Coal Shippers argue that topper agents are intended for use on stationary coal piles, and their performance on moving railcars has not been verified.[40]  They further argue that this use, for which the topper agents were not designed, can even increase coal dust emissions.[41] 

 

It is generally accepted in the industry that topper agents suppress the emission of coal dust.  Topper agents are used in various parts of the world as a coal dust control method, not just on stationary piles of coal, but on moving railcars.[42]  The governments of Canada and the State of Virginia have concluded that topper agents effectively control coal dust on moving railcars.[43]  Topper agents are also used to control coal dust loss from railcars in Australia, China, Colombia, and in the State of Kentucky.[44]  Technical literature dating back to the 1970s states that topper agents applied to railcars for coal dust control are effective.[45]  While shippers argue that these studies are irrelevant because they did not consider the specific topper agents approved for the safe harbor, the prior studies regarding application of topper agents are persuasive for the general point that topper agents can be effective for suppressing the dispersion of coal dust from moving railcars.  In short, the application of topper agents is a generally accepted approach to controlling coal dust loss from railcars. Although Coal Shippers argue that topper agents are not intended for use on moving railcars, and such use can increase emissions, the test data discussed below provides sufficient evidence for us to find that the application of topper agents combined with load profiling as set forth in the safe harbor is effective.

 

The Super Trial.  We find further that BNSF has provided sufficient evidence—through a series of laboratory and field tests of topper agents and body chemical treatments[46] referred to as “the Super Trial”—to validate the inclusion in the safe harbor of specific topper agents for application to loaded coal cars. [47] 

 

The Super Trial included field tests of 115 trains using passive collectors.[48]  Half of the cars on a test train were treated with the suppression method being tested, and half of the cars were untreated.[49]  Passive collectors were placed on seven of the treated cars and seven of the untreated cars of each train.[50]  The devices were removed when the test train reached a certain point, and the collected coal dust was weighed in the field and then in a BNSF laboratory.[51]  The amount of coal dust collected from treated and untreated cars was then compared to determine the extent that a particular treatment method reduced the emission of coal dust.[52] 

 

BNSF sought and obtained shipper cooperation for the Super Trial.  BNSF states that it invited all of its PRB coal shippers and mines to participate in the Super Trial, that 13 shippers and three coal producers participated by having topper agents tested at four mines, and that other shippers and mines participated by attending meetings and reviewing data.[53]  BNSF met with representatives of shippers and mines five times from December 2009 to October 2010 to discuss the test procedures and results and answer questions.[54]  In addition, after BNSF selected the first few chemical agents to start the tests, an independent selection committee chose the other topper agents and body treatments to be tested.[55] 

 

The Super Trial initially identified three effective topper agents (i.e., agents that reduced coal dust emissions by 85% when combined with profiling compared to untreated cars).[56]  After the Super Trial tests, shippers and mines sponsored successful passive collector tests for two additional topper agents, which BNSF then added to the safe harbor.[57]

 

Shippers here have made a number of complaints that they say invalidate the Super Trial.  The shipper parties argue that the Super Trial tests cannot show that the approved topper agents effectively reduce coal dust emissions because of inadequacies in the trial design and execution.  Coal Shippers argue that the passive collector measurements are not meaningful or cannot be evaluated because (1) BNSF did not identify the size range of particles captured by the passive collectors;[58] (2) testing protocol did not establish sufficient procedures to address the treatment of non-coal materials collected in the passive collectors;[59] (3) BNSF has not shown that the particulate matter in the air flowing into the collectors has the same concentration as particulate matter in the entire airflow over the railcar tops;[60] (4) BNSF has not provided enough information about how measurements of samples were taken;[61] and (5) BNSF has not provided enough information about the protocols related to handling of passive collectors and whether those protocols were followed.[62]  The Coal Shippers contest BNSF’s claims that its tests were informative and argue that if the tests were not sufficiently accurate to determine specific quantities of coal dust loss, then it is unlikely that the same tests can accurately determine the relative amount of coal dust loss from treated versus untreated cars.[63]

 

We have reviewed the facts surrounding the Super Trial, including the results submitted by BNSF, the criticisms leveled by the shipper parties and BNSF’s responses and conclude that the Super Trial was sufficient to demonstrate that load profiling and the application of approved topper agents reduce coal dust loss by 85 percent or more. 

 

BNSF’s witnesses have provided sufficient responses to the shippers’ criticisms regarding the design and use of the passive collectors.  BNSF’s witnesses addressed the issue of particle size, explaining that, based on the results of prior studies, the passive collectors were designed to capture particles as small as 1/200 of an inch, which would trap the particles that otherwise would be likely to settle into the ballast.[64]  Similarly, BNSF’s witnesses explained that they considered the airflow issues in placement of the collectors on the trains, and that the location and height of the collectors were based on prior tests, which showed where the greatest amount of dust had been collected. [65]  BNSF also varied the treated cars from front to rear to account for possible variations in car location.[66]  In addition, the criticisms leveled at the use of passive collectors by Dr. Viz, the Coal Shippers’ expert witness, are undermined by his prior use of passive collectors in studies he performed in 2008 and his recognition that passive collectors are appropriate for the use they were put to here—measurement of relative amounts of coal dust emitted.[67] 

 

The shipper parties also take issue with the quality of the Super Trial test data, claiming that data quality issues render the test results meaningless.  AECC and Coal Shippers argue that the sample size was too small and therefore not statistically significant.[68]  Coal Shippers also question the competence of the consultants who conducted the testing, noting that they are the same consultants who were responsible for the measurement system questioned by the Board in Coal Dust I, slip op. at 12-14, and claim that attempts to express concerns about the tests in writing were discouraged.[69]  AECC argues that in some instances, changes to results were considered or implemented when BNSF and its consultants believed the results were not consistent with what they expected, calling into question the validity of the results.[70]  AECC notes that the IDV.2 measurement system detected significant dusting from treated trains during Super Trial testing, which it claims contradicts the asserted effectiveness of the topper agents.[71]

 

We find that the sample size was sufficient.  While the amount of coal dust collected from untreated cars showed large variability, the amount of coal dust collected from treated cars showed low variability.[72]  We find that the consistent results for treated cars indicate that a larger sample size was not necessary and that the approved topper agents performed well under a wide range of conditions.

 

The tests also appear to have been properly executed by an experienced staff.[73]  BNSF has explained that the only exclusion of data was to prevent distortion of results due to rain (because rain limits coal dust loss regardless of topper agent application) and for two trains that had received flawed application of the topper agent.[74]  We find that BNSF has sufficiently explained its testing protocols, and gave sufficient instruction on removal of foreign materials from the collection bags.[75]  Although the shipper parties argue that the instructions were insufficient, they do not explain what they believe would constitute appropriate instructions.  BNSF has detailed its measurement procedures, and we find them to be appropriate.[76]

 

            The shipper parties argue that the Super Trial did not address the real-world conditions under which topper agent-treated coal trains would travel and that the results therefore do not show that the approved topper agents achieve 85% reduction of coal dust.  Coal Shippers and AECC argue that the tests ignored the effects of weather, such as cold, wind, and rain, on the application, curing process, and effectiveness of topper agents.[77]  They also claim that the Super Trial did not consider the effect of train speed on coal dust loss.[78]  AECC claims that because the tests only considered coal dust loss over a limited distance, the tests do not show that the topper agents will reduce loss over the entire trip and in fact may lead to greater losses later in the trip.[79]  AECC also claims that improper topper agent application (both excessive and incomplete application) calls the validity of the results into question.[80]

 

We find that the testing adequately accounted for weather conditions and real world operations.  BNSF addresses why it did not normalize the data using the Rail Transport Emission Profiling System (RTEPS), which Coal Shippers argue should have been done to account for weather conditions.[81]  We are persuaded by BNSF’s explanation that it collected the RTEPS data and used it to identify test trains that ran during precipitation, but concluded that the actual data, which compares relative weights between treated and untreated cars that ran under the same weather conditions, was preferable to adjusted data for which Coal Shippers argue.[82]  We also find persuasive BNSF’s explanation that the tests accounted for varying weather conditions because trains ran during cold, hot, and windy conditions.[83]  BNSF excluded trains that ran during precipitation because rainy conditions limit coal dust loss regardless of topper agent application, but the approved topper agents underwent lab tests to ensure that they worked in precipitation.[84]  While the field tests did not take place during the coldest months of the year, the topper agents were designed for cold weather conditions and were lab tested under freezing conditions.[85]

 

Similarly, we do not find that variations in the speeds of the test trains invalidated the results.  AECC claims that some test trains ran at limited speeds.  Although the evidence does not show the speeds of all the test trains, as explained above we believe the results show that the topper agents are effective under a variety of conditions. [86]

 

AECC argues that the profiled shape required by the tariff combined with BNSF’s operating and maintenance practices cause topper agents to crack in transit, which leads to failure of the topper agent.[87]  AECC claims that photographs show that topper agents had failed on 29 of 34 trains for which photographs were available by the time those trains reached Alliance, Neb.[88]  We do not find AECC’s evidence persuasive.  Regardless of any cracking in transit, the test results for the topper agents approved following the Super Trial show an 85% reduction in coal dust emissions from treated cars compared to untreated cars.[89]  BNSF witnesses stated that cracked topper agent crust can still provide sufficient protection against coal dust loss, particularly considering that the tariff does not require 100% elimination of coal dust loss.[90]  Finally, BNSF witnesses explained that the topper agents in the Super Trial were applied using temporary equipment and that cracking should be reduced as the application process at the mines improves with experience and the installation of permanent equipment.[91]  AECC has not given us any reason to believe that the application of topper agents in the Super Trial was so problematic that we must find that the consistent results of the tests are not meaningful.

 

Further, we do not find that the length of the trip used in the tests invalidates the results.  Shippers have not shown that the topper agents fail beyond the test end point.  As discussed above, the photographs that show cracking in the topper crust do not establish topper agent failure and therefore do not prove that topper agents are failing or will fail beyond the test area. 

 

In sum, the test results for the topper agents approved following the Super Trial show an 85% reduction in coal dust emissions from treated cars compared with untreated cars.[92]  The results of the Super Trial are consistent with the other evidence, discussed earlier, that topper agents are effective in suppressing coal dust.  The shipper interests that oppose the tariff have not offered any evidence that directly contradicts the results of the Super Trial. 

 

Certainty.  Ameren Missouri and NCTA argue that the safe harbor does not provide sufficient certainty to shippers.  NCTA argues that the requirement that shippers reduce coal dust by 85% lacks a defined starting point from which to measure reduction and criteria that define how BNSF will determine if the 85% standard has been met.[93]  NCTA claims that this makes it impossible for shippers who are currently taking various coal dust reduction measures, such as profiling, to determine if they already meet the 85% standard without using the safe harbor.[94]  Ameren Missouri argues that the last sentence of paragraph 4 of the tariff item (the “liability provision”), which states that coal dust suppression methods shall not cause adverse impacts to BNSF employees and property, contravenes the concept of a safe harbor.[95]

 

AECC argues that the safe harbor does not provide sufficient certainty because it involves a performance standard.[96]  AECC claims that BNSF plans to impose penalties for failure to achieve optimal safe harbor compliance; therefore, compliance with the safe harbor will not provide assurance to shippers that their coal will ship without incurring penalties.[97]  AECC also argues that BNSF is using a laser to monitor profiling, that BNSF intends to use lasers to assess the quality of topper application, and that BNSF has not disclosed the computer program that the laser system uses to monitor profiling.[98]  AECC claims that BNSF has found that about half the loads monitored with the laser system do not have the ideal profile.[99]  AECC and Coal Shippers contend that, because the profile and topper agent coating are likely to degrade during transit, especially under certain operating conditions or due to the condition of the track, the safe harbor combined with the laser monitoring system will create uncertainty for shippers, citing the Board’s concerns in Coal Dust I, slip op. at 13-14.[100]  Coal Shippers argue that the tariff should be revised to state that shippers will be in compliance with the profiling requirement if the mine operators have installed and are using a chute designed in accordance with the current tariff’s chute diagram.[101]  

 

BNSF and UP argue that the safe harbor addresses the Board’s concerns about certainty because shippers that instruct their mine agents to implement the safe harbor will know at loading that they are in compliance with the tariff.[102]  BNSF also argues that it currently uses the laser monitoring system only to provide feedback to mines and shippers to help them improve their loading practices[103] and that the distance between the mines and the laser monitoring system does not matter because the coal will naturally settle into the correct profile as the train moves.[104]  USDOT states on opening that the safe harbor appears to address the certainty issues raised by the Board in Coal Dust I.[105]

 

We find that the safe harbor provides sufficient certainty to shippers because if mine agents take the specified loading steps—profiling and application of an approved topper agent—shippers will have reasonable assurance of compliance.  This is consistent with the Board’s finding in Coal Dust I, slip op. at 12-14, that a reasonable rule would provide certainty to shippers, would give shippers a compliance option that is independent of monitoring system results, and would “focus shipper efforts to minimize coal dust emissions . . . at the load-out.”  NCTA’s argument regarding the starting point and measurement of the 85% standard is not relevant to the degree of certainty that the safe harbor provides to shippers.  The safe harbor provides a reasonable degree of certainty to shippers that use it regardless of how the 85% standard is measured.[106]  Moreover, the tariff establishes a clear starting point—“85 percent as compared to loss in transit of coal dust from coal cars where no remedial measures have been taken”—for measuring the efficacy of alternative coal dust mitigation measures for shippers that wish to employ an alternative to the safe harbor.

 

BNSF’s current use of the laser monitoring system to provide feedback on execution of the safe harbor loading steps does not negate the certainty provided by the safe harbor.  We understand that, at some point in the future, after appropriate notice and an opportunity to cure, BNSF could choose to take enforcement action against shippers whose mine agents do not profile and apply topper agents during the loading process.  We will address the reasonableness of any enforcement actions taken by BNSF in the context of specific facts brought to us on complaint. 

 

Similarly, the suggestion that the tariff should be modified to state that shippers will be in compliance with the profiling requirement if the mine operators have installed and are using a chute designed in accordance with the current tariff’s chute diagram can be addressed if an actual issue arises regarding that section of the tariff.  With respect to profiling, the tariff provides that a shipper will be in compliance with BSNF’s loading requirement if the shipper “ensures that loaded uncovered cars will be profiled in accordance with BNSF’s published template entitled ‘Redesigned Chute Diagram . . . .’”[107]  Coal Shippers have not explained why this language creates so much uncertainty that it should be found to be unreasonable and replaced with the shippers’ preferred formulation.[108] 

 

One of Coal Shippers’ major concerns appears to be that BNSF will enforce the revised tariff in a way that violates the principles of Coal Dust I.  But this issue is not ripe for decision at this time.  The revised tariff includes coal loading procedures that are deemed to comply with the performance standards of the tariff, and, which, based on the current record, we find are not unreasonable.   Given that full compliance with this tariff has not yet begun, it is prudent to wait to see how the tariff and enforcement works in practice before we opine on enforcement methods.  As we have noted, shippers will have 60 days to bring complaints to the Board before BNSF takes enforcement action.

 

Cost effectiveness.  Shipper parties argue that the safe harbor is not cost effective.  AECC and Coal Shippers argue that the 85% standard on which the safe harbor is based is excessive because other measures, primarily profiling combined with use of three-inch coal[109] and maintenance, can achieve significant reductions for a much lower cost than the safe harbor.[110]  Coal Shippers argue that BNSF has no incentive to compare the cost of the safe harbor to other approaches because shippers bear all compliance costs under the tariff.[111]  Similarly, AECC argues that BNSF did not establish a reasonable basis for the 85% requirement and did not do a cost analysis to support the standard.[112]  AECC takes issue with what it claims is the lack of credit shippers have received for voluntary measures taken to reduce coal dust and argues against the 85% standard because the standard, according to AECC, does not give shippers any credit for previously achieved reductions.[113]  AECC suggests several alternative methods to reduce coal dust emissions.[114]

 

AECC argues on opening that BNSF did not try to reconcile its 85% coal dust reduction standard with the Board’s requirement from Coal Dust I, slip op. at 5 n.14, 6, 12, that measures be cost effective and reasonably economically commensurate with the problem.[115]  AECC claims that BNSF should have anticipated the issue and the Board should require BNSF to submit its best case on opening.[116]  AECC claims that the lowest topper agent price quoted by BNSF is not generally available.[117]  AECC argues that without shipper savings from preservation of coal and given BNSF’s admission that the safe harbor will not decrease its maintenance costs, the expense of the safe harbor is not justified.[118]  AECC claims that the addition of mainline tracks addresses the capacity concerns the Board expressed in Coal Dust I, slip op. at 5-6.[119]  Coal Shippers argue that BNSF’s testing shows and its witnesses admit that profiling and three-inch coal produce significant reductions in coal dust emissions and that BNSF has requested that shippers switch to three-inch coal.[120]

 

The Board stated in Coal Dust I, slip op. at 5 n.4, that “[in a cost-effectiveness analysis, once a determination has been made that a problem exists for which a solution is required, the focus is on whether the solution is effective in relation to its costs,” and that a tariff provision should be “reasonably commensurate economically with the problem it addresses,” slip op. at 6.  Because the shipper parties are seeking a declaration that the coal dust suppression method in the safe harbor is unreasonable, they had the burden of proving that the safe harbor does not meet the standard we established in Coal Dust I.  We find that the shipper parties failed to carry this burden.  The coal dust suppression method set forth in the safe harbor has been shown to reduce coal dust emission by 85% or more.  No party has presented evidence of a coal dust control method that achieves a reduction comparable to the safe harbor.  

 

Although the shipper parties argue that BNSF’s statement that implementation of the safe harbor will not reduce its maintenance costs[121] indicates that the safe harbor has no benefits, we conclude that the impacts of coal dust on ballast integrity justify containment efforts.  The Board explained in Coal Dust I, slip op. at 7, that coal dust fouling of the ballast is not necessarily visible prior to track failure.  This fact supports the reasonableness of BNSF’s decision that containment is superior to maintenance alone; if BNSF cannot pinpoint the location of significant coal dust accumulations, its maintenance tasks are more challenging.  In addition, the Board explained, id. at 9, 11, that BNSF has a right to establish loading requirements calculated to produce reliable and efficient service. 

 

We find that the shipper parties have not shown that the effective safe harbor is not reasonably commensurate with its cost.  The Board has held that carriers can require coal shippers to take reasonable loading measures to ensure that their coal remains in the railcars.   Coal Dust I, slip op. at 11.  The evidence shows that application of topper agents is the most effective measure for controlling the dispersion of coal dust from open-top rail cars.   There is no evidence that topper agents are cost prohibitive, particularly in relation to the delivered cost of PRB coal, which is is approximately $30 per ton.[122] .  In the Coal Dust I proceeding, WCTL cited an estimate that the cost of topper agent application would be $0.10 to $0.75 per ton of coal.[123]  Coal Shippers acknowledge that this cost estimate is consistent with the estimate they cite in this proceeding.[124] 

 

The shipper parties argue that the 85% standard is excessive and that a lower standard could be achieved for a lower cost, but the evidence presented does not show that any other control method achieves a reduction of, or even near to, 85%.  The shipper parties primarily argue that operations and maintenance changes, three-inch coal, and profiling would reduce coal dust for a much lower cost than the safe harbor.  However, the shipper parties have not shown that three-inch coal, without application of topper agents, is likely to reduce coal dust emissions by, or even near to, 85%.[125]  Even with 3-inch roller spacing, the crushing process creates a substantial amount of coal dust and small coal particles.[126]  Four trials testing three-inch coal and profiling showed average reductions of coal dust in transit ranging from 38% to 62%,[127] far less than that of the results shown by the safe harbor.  While AECC proposes other methods, it offers no evidence of their efficacy.[128]  Without persuasive evidence that another method achieves significant reductions, we do not need to consider any further the claim that the 85% standard is excessive.  We find no basis to overturn BNSF’s decision to pursue a containment approach that is supported by test results and not cost-prohibitive in relation to the cost of delivered coal in favor of methods that appear to be inferior based on available evidence. 

 

The shipper parties also fail to offer any evidence that would allow us to evaluate the relative merits of varying levels of coal dust loss reduction.  While the shipper parties seem to want the agency to perform an analysis that would establish the benefits of varying levels of coal dust reduction, they did not provide the data necessary for the analysis or submit their own study.  Thus, we cannot determine the costs and benefits of methods that would achieve 50% versus 70% versus 85% reduction.  We therefore conclude that the 85% standard, which can be achieved by the currently available safe harbor, is not unreasonable.[129]

 

Safe harbor risks.  AECC claims that there are safety issues associated with the use of the selected topper agents, but it has not shown that topper agents are unsafe.[130]  AECC submitted no testimony from an environmental or safety expert to support its allegations, and it has not explained the safety hazards it claims are associated with overspray and buildup of topper agents on railcars.[131]  Moreover, the documents cited by AECC are ambiguous at best.[132]  AECC therefore has not met its burden of proving the harms or establishing the significance of those harms.[133]

 

In summary, we find that coal shippers have not shown that the safe harbor is unreasonable, and we are persuaded by the record evidence that the tariff is not unreasonable (except for the liability provision).   Load profiling and application of topper agents are effective commercially available methods of controlling the
dispersion of coal dust and are not cost prohibitive.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>The safe harbor provides shippers with the
certainty lacking in the tariff that the Board found unreasonable in <u>Coal
Dust I</u>.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>In addition, shipper parties
have not met their burden of proving environmental or safety harms.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><u><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'>Approval of Alternative Safe Harbor Measures</span></u><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'>AECC
and NCTA take issue with sections 3.B and 4 of Item 100 of the tariff, which
allow shippers to propose additional topper agents or new methods of coal dust
reduction and state that BNSF will approve the proposal if evidence exists that
the alternative reduces coal dust loss by 85%.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> 
</span>AECC cites the Board’s statement in <u>Coal Dust I</u>, slip op. at 6,
that coal dust control is evolving and that the industry should continue to
consider new approaches to the issue,<a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn135'
href="#_ftn135" name="_ftnref135" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[134]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a> arguing
that despite sections 3.B and 4 of Item 100 of the tariff, shippers will not be
able to obtain approval of alternatives that would be as effective as the
current safe harbor.<a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn136' href="#_ftn136"
name="_ftnref136" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[135]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a> <span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>AECC argues that BNSF skewed the Super Trial
to show an 85% reduction by the approved topper agents but claims that BNSF has
no reason to similarly assure approval for alternatives proposed by shippers.<a
style='mso-footnote-id:ftn137' href="#_ftn137" name="_ftnref137" title=""><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[136]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a> <span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>AECC claims that BNSF does not have a reason
to consider significantly less expensive alternatives.<a style='mso-footnote-id:
ftn138' href="#_ftn138" name="_ftnref138" title=""><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[137]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>NCTA argues that the tariff provides no
guidance as to what constitutes appropriate testing of alternatives.<a
style='mso-footnote-id:ftn139' href="#_ftn139" name="_ftnref139" title=""><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[138]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'>BNSF
claims that it has worked with shippers to consider and test alternatives.<a
style='mso-footnote-id:ftn140' href="#_ftn140" name="_ftnref140" title=""><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[139]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF notes that the original safe harbor had
three approved topper agents, but on the request of shippers two additional
topper agents were tested and added to the safe harbor.<a style='mso-footnote-id:
ftn141' href="#_ftn141" name="_ftnref141" title=""><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[140]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF also claims that it worked with shippers
to test compaction and body treatment chemicals, although they were not
approved as safe harbors.<a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn142' href="#_ftn142"
name="_ftnref142" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[141]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF states that it will continue to work
with shippers to test alternative methods for coal dust control.<a
style='mso-footnote-id:ftn143' href="#_ftn143" name="_ftnref143" title=""><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[142]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'>We
find that the tariff language addressing approval of alternative safe harbor
methods is not unreasonable.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Use of the
same methodology for future tests should address shipper concerns about
fairness.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>If a shipper believes that
BNSF has unfairly denied approval of an alternative method, that shipper may
bring a complaint to the Board.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span></span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'>While
we find in the decision that the shippers have not shown that the cost of
applying topper agents would be prohibitive, it would also be unreasonable for BNSF
to refuse to cooperate with shippers in evaluating and testing lower cost
methods of achieving compliance with BNSF’s coal dust mitigation tariff.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF and shippers that use PRB coal have a
mutual interest in finding lower cost methods of meeting the 85% coal dust
reduction requirement.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>We expect BNSF to
cooperate in good faith regarding all issues related to testing alternative
methods of coal dust suppression.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><u><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'>Enforcement Issues <o:p></o:p></span></u></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'>Coal
Shippers and NCTA argue that the lack of enforcement measures in the tariff
renders it unreasonable.<a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn144' href="#_ftn144"
name="_ftnref144" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[143]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>They note that in <u>Coal Dust I</u>, slip
op. at 14, the lack of enforcement measures in the tariff at issue there was
one factor in the Board’s decision finding the tariff unreasonable.<a
style='mso-footnote-id:ftn145' href="#_ftn145" name="_ftnref145" title=""><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[144]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Coal Shippers claim that most tariffs specify
the consequences of failure to meet performance standards, and that the law
requires this because all transportation terms must be in the tariff text.<a
style='mso-footnote-id:ftn146' href="#_ftn146" name="_ftnref146" title=""><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[145]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a> <span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Coal Shippers argue that the lack of
consequences is a particular problem here because of public reports that BNSF
may refuse service or impose extreme financial penalties for failure to meet
the tariff’s performance standards,<a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn147'
href="#_ftn147" name="_ftnref147" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[146]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a> noting
the Board’s statement in the decision instituting the proceeding in the prior
docket regarding the importance of coal transportation to the United States’
energy supply and economy.<a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn148' href="#_ftn148"
name="_ftnref148" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[147]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Coal Shippers claim that sound public policy
requires BNSF to specify its enforcement measures because without specified
measures shippers and the Board must guess at the possible consequences.<a
style='mso-footnote-id:ftn149' href="#_ftn149" name="_ftnref149" title=""><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[148]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Similarly, NCTA argues that the Board should
declare that BNSF may only deny service under narrow, defined circumstances and
that denial of service would not be an appropriate penalty for noncompliance
with this tariff.<a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn150' href="#_ftn150"
name="_ftnref150" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[149]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'>BNSF
argues that, although it did not include enforcement measures in the tariff,
the safe harbor is sufficient to address the Board’s concerns in <u>Coal Dust I</u>,
slip op. at 14, about the lack of enforcement measures in the tariff.<a
style='mso-footnote-id:ftn151' href="#_ftn151" name="_ftnref151" title=""><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[150]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>UP cites its own tariff that contains rules
for coal trains in the PRB, claiming that the tariff has not led to shipper
complaints that it is unreasonable despite the fact that it does not contain penalties
for various items, such as the heightened coal car maintenance requirements to
prevent derailments associated with axle failure.<a style='mso-footnote-id:
ftn152' href="#_ftn152" name="_ftnref152" title=""><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[151]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'>The
tariff’s lack of enforcement measures in and of itself is not unreasonable.<a
style='mso-footnote-id:ftn153' href="#_ftn153" name="_ftnref153" title=""><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[152]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>The Board found in <u>Coal Dust I</u>, slip
op. at 14, that the lack of enforcement measures in the previous tariff was one
aspect of many uncertainties in that tariff.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> 
</span>But under the revised tariff, shippers that take the clearly defined
steps of profiling and applying an approved topper agent will be assured of
their compliance.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Under the tariff at
issue in <u>Coal Dust I</u>, not only would shippers not have known the
enforcement measures, they would not have known if their chosen compliance
methods would meet the standard, if the equipment measuring their compliance
would accurately measure coal dust losses from the trains carrying their coal, or
whether the conditions under which their coal traveled would affect whether
they were deemed compliant.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Coal Dust
I</u>, slip op. at 13-14.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>But in general,
as UP’s example shows, not all tariffs specify enforcement measures. <span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'>Our
decision here is not inconsistent with <u>Birmingham Rail &amp; Locomotive Co.</u>,
358 I.C.C. at 608, or <u>Radioactive Materials</u>, 359 I.C.C. at 73, the cases
cited by the shipper parties.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>While both
decisions state that tariffs must be clear, neither requires that a tariff
contain enforcement measures.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Birmingham
Rail &amp; Locomotive Co.</u>, 358 I.C.C. at 607-608, concerned a tariff’s requirement
that some, but not all, shipments of locomotive cranes, which are susceptible
to derailment and must be run at lower speeds than other rail equipment, use
special train service.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>The ICC found the
tariff to be ambiguous due to lack of guidelines for determining the speed
capability of individual locomotive cranes, which the ICC was concerned would
lead to unequal treatment of shippers.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE><u>Id.</u> at 608.</span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Radioactive
Materials</u>, 359 I.C.C. at 73, concerned a tariff that stated special train
service for spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste materials would be available
“at [the railroad’s] convenience”, which the ICC found was ambiguous.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'>Neither
<u>Birmingham Rail &amp; Locomotive Co.</u> nor <u>Radioactive Materials</u> addresses
the lack of enforcement measures that are at issue here.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>The lack of enforcement measures does not
pose the same risk of discriminatory practices with which the ICC was concerned
in <u>Birmingham Rail &amp; Locomotive Co.</u><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> 
</span>As BNSF explains, shippers that attempt good faith compliance will not
face any immediate or serious penalties.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> 
</span>The tariff clearly details how to comply, and BNSF has stated it will provide
at least 60 <span class=SpellE>days notice</span> before taking an enforcement
action to enable the affected shipper to seek Board intervention if it chooses
to do so.<a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn154' href="#_ftn154" name="_ftnref154"
title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:
footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:
EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[153]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>While identifying the potential
enforcement measures in the tariff might give the appearance of assuring more
equal treatment to noncompliant shippers, we do not find that <u>Birmingham
Rail &amp; Locomotive Co.</u> or <u>Radioactive Materials</u> requires it. <span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'>The
shipper parties’ concerns about denial of service are premature.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>We note BNSF’s commitment on the record in
this proceeding to provide at least 60 <span class=SpellE>days notice</span>
before taking an enforcement action should help to assure shippers that they would
receive ample notice of any enforcement measures, giving them an opportunity to
bring a specific complaint to the Board, if necessary.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Therefore, if and when a shipper wishes to
contest BNSF’s enforcement of the tariff, it can file a complaint.<a
style='mso-footnote-id:ftn155' href="#_ftn155" name="_ftnref155" title=""><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[154]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center;page-break-after:avoid'><u><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'>Responsibility for Compliance Costs<o:p></o:p></span></u></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in;page-break-after:avoid'><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in;page-break-after:avoid'><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'>Coal Shippers, NCTA, and AECC argue that the tariff is
unreasonable because it requires shippers to bear all compliance costs.<a
style='mso-footnote-id:ftn156' href="#_ftn156" name="_ftnref156" title=""><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[155]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a> <span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>First, Coal Shippers claim that the law
requires BNSF to pay compliance costs because, while the supplier of railcars must
provide a properly loaded car to permit safe transport,<a style='mso-footnote-id:
ftn157' href="#_ftn157" name="_ftnref157" title=""><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[156]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a> the
party that seeks special car treatment or service must bear the associated
costs.<a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn158' href="#_ftn158" name="_ftnref158"
title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:
footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:
EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[157]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Coal Shippers argue that coal can be carried
safely in open-top <span class=GramE>railcars,</span> and that FRA regulations
require only that the railroad maintain the ballast but do not require a
particular maintenance method.<a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn159' href="#_ftn159"
name="_ftnref159" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[158]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Therefore, Coal Shippers conclude that BNSF
seeks special service and is responsible for the costs of that service.<a
style='mso-footnote-id:ftn160' href="#_ftn160" name="_ftnref160" title=""><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[159]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'>Coal
Shippers argue further that railroads cannot require shippers to pay twice for
the same service. <span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>According to Coal
Shippers, under the tariff, the shippers pay shipping rates, which cover
maintenance, and they also pay for tariff compliance to address ballast maintenance
issues, effectively requiring shippers to pay for maintenance twice.<a
style='mso-footnote-id:ftn161' href="#_ftn161" name="_ftnref161" title=""><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[160]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Therefore, Coal Shippers argue, because coal
can be safely transported without topper agent application and because tariff
compliance will reduce BNSF’s maintenance costs, it is only fair that BNSF
reimburse shippers for the costs of topper agent application, particularly
given that coal and other commodities regularly move in open-top cars from
which these commodities escape.<a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn162' href="#_ftn162"
name="_ftnref162" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[161]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Finally, Coal Shippers point out that, while
BNSF has cited examples of other carriers that require topper agent
application, none of them require shippers to pay for that application.<a
style='mso-footnote-id:ftn163' href="#_ftn163" name="_ftnref163" title=""><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[162]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'>AECC
claims that the lack of cost sharing shows BNSF’s market power and violates the
Constrained Market Pricing principles underlying the Board’s regulation of
rates.<a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn164' href="#_ftn164" name="_ftnref164"
title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:
footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:
EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[163]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>AECC’s witness asserts that BNSF’s
requirement that shippers apply topper agents increases the contribution to
margin that BNSF earns from coal traffic in the PRB.<a style='mso-footnote-id:
ftn165' href="#_ftn165" name="_ftnref165" title=""><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[164]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'>BNSF
and UP argue that shippers typically bear the cost of loading,<a
style='mso-footnote-id:ftn166' href="#_ftn166" name="_ftnref166" title=""><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[165]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a> and
BNSF claims that it should not have to bear costs of activities over which it
has no control.<a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn167' href="#_ftn167"
name="_ftnref167" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[166]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF also argues that authorities cited by
Coal Shippers do not support a requirement that a carrier share the costs
associated with a reasonable loading rule; rather, the cited authorities hold
that special loading or service requirements should be paid for by the party
that initiates or requests them.<a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn168'
href="#_ftn168" name="_ftnref168" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[167]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>However, BNSF continues, the tariff is not an
optional special service but a measure necessary for safe and reliable
transportation.<a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn169' href="#_ftn169"
name="_ftnref169" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[168]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Similarly, UP argues that, because the tariff
addresses a safety issue, the argument that shippers are not responsible for
loading costs not needed for safe transportation fails.<a style='mso-footnote-id:
ftn170' href="#_ftn170" name="_ftnref170" title=""><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[169]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'>BNSF
disagrees with Coal Shippers’ argument that through compliance costs shippers
will pay to maintain ballast while also paying for the same service through
rates.<a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn171' href="#_ftn171" name="_ftnref171"
title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:
footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:
EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[170]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF responds that the tariff merely
establishes a requirement that PRB coal shippers secure their freight, and Coal
Shippers therefore mischaracterize the requirement.<a style='mso-footnote-id:
ftn172' href="#_ftn172" name="_ftnref172" title=""><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[171]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF also disagrees with Coal Shippers’ claim
that industry practice requires BNSF to share compliance costs.<a
style='mso-footnote-id:ftn173' href="#_ftn173" name="_ftnref173" title=""><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[172]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a> <span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>BNSF also claims that it is not clear whether
compliance will affect its maintenance costs.<a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn174'
href="#_ftn174" name="_ftnref174" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[173]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a> <o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'>Coal
Shippers respond that BNSF exercises control over loading because it sets the
loading rules, and therefore BNSF cannot disclaim responsibility for costs on
the basis that it lacks control over the process.<a style='mso-footnote-id:
ftn175' href="#_ftn175" name="_ftnref175" title=""><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[174]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a> <span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Coal Shippers also argue that the loading control
issue can be addressed by limiting BNSF’s responsibility to a specific per-ton
allowance or to reasonably incurred costs and by Board adjudication of related
disputes.<a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn176' href="#_ftn176" name="_ftnref176"
title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:
footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:
EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[175]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'>In
response to BNSF’s argument that topper agent application is necessary for safe
transportation, Coal Shippers claim that FRA would require the measures if
safety demanded them.<a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn177' href="#_ftn177"
name="_ftnref177" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[176]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Coal Shippers argue that BNSF, by asserting
that coal dust is freight that needs to be secured, “is really advocating the
abolishment <span style='mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>of the use of open top cars
to haul bulk commodities.”<span class=MsoFootnoteReference> <a
style='mso-footnote-id:ftn178' href="#_ftn178" name="_ftnref178" title=""><span
style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>[177]</span></span><![endif]></span></a></span><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Citing evidence from the prior docket for the
proposition that all commodities create dust, they claim that BNSF’s position
would result <span class=GramE>in a “</span>grinding halt” of the nation’s
commerce.<a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn179' href="#_ftn179" name="_ftnref179"
title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:
footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:
EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA;mso-bidi-font-weight:
bold'>[178]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Coal Shippers also take issue with BNSF’s
claim that dust is freight.<a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn180' href="#_ftn180"
name="_ftnref180" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>[179]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Finally, Coal Shippers dispute BNSF’s
claim that tariff compliance will not reduce its maintenance costs, citing a prior
statement by BNSF that maintenance savings would exceed the cost of topper
agents.<a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn181' href="#_ftn181" name="_ftnref181"
title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:
footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:
EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA;mso-bidi-font-weight:
bold'>[180]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><o:p></o:p></span></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;
mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;
mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>In this case, we do not find it unreasonable that
the tariff places responsibility for compliance costs on the affected shippers,
rather than requiring BNSF to incur the costs initially and then pass them back
to the shippers through increased transportation rates.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>C</span><span style='font-size:12.0pt'>arriers
may require shippers to undertake certain loading requirements at their own
expense.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span class=GramE><u>See</u> <u>Bd.
of Trade of Chi.</u>,<span style='mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt'> </span>220&nbsp;I.C.C.
at 761 (finding that shippers were responsible for costs of installing grain
doors on railcars).</span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>T<span
style='mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>he Board explained in <u>Coal Dust I</u>,
slip op. at 11, that “</span>BNSF and other coal carriers have the right to
establish coal loading requirements, subject to the reasonableness requirement
of 49&nbsp;U.S.C. §&nbsp;10702.”<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'>Contrary
to Coal Shippers’ argument, the coal dust suppression measures set forth in the
safe harbor do not amount to the type of unnecessary special service that the
ICC found unreasonable in <u>Radioactive Materials</u>.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>The ICC in <u>Radioactive Materials</u>
found unreasonable the railroads’ tariff requirement that nuclear waste must be
transported on special trains.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>359&nbsp;I.C.C. at 74-75.</span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> 
</span>It explained that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and USDOT had
promulgated comprehensive regulations establishing safety standards for rail
transportation and handling of nuclear waste that did not require special
trains, and found that the additional requirement for special train service
imposed by the railroads did not materially improve safety.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u> at 72-75.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'>The
Board has found that PRB coal dust is a harmful ballast <span class=SpellE>foulant</span>,
<u>Coal Dust I</u>, slip op. at 7, and that coal dust fouling could contribute
to future accidents by destabilizing tracks.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> 
</span><span class=GramE><u>Id.</u> at 8.</span><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>The Board therefore concluded that carriers
could establish loading requirements to reduce coal dust loss.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u> at 10-11.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>In reaching these conclusions, the Board
addressed shipper claims that coal has historically been carried in open-top railcars
by stating that carriers could change their rules in response to changing
circumstances.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span class=GramE><u>Id.</u>
at 11.</span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>The fact that there are no
<span class=GramE>FRA <span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>regulations</span>
explicitly governing coal dust does not preclude carriers from taking steps on
their own to address their concerns.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>In
any event, USDOT supports the safe harbor as reasonable and fully consistent
with FRA regulations.<a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn182' href="#_ftn182"
name="_ftnref182" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[181]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a> <span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><u>Radioactive Materials</u> does not demand a
different outcome. <o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'>The
shippers’ other arguments also fail.<a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn183'
href="#_ftn183" name="_ftnref183" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[182]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>There is no double payment for maintenance,
as Coal Shippers suggest.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>The loading
requirement helps to reduce ballast fouling, but it does not replace maintenance
activities.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>It therefore cannot be
characterized as a double payment.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Nor
does having shippers bear the cost of loading requirements violate any
principles underlying rate regulation, as AECC claims.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>If a shipper believes it has the basis for
reducing BNSF’s rate because the reduction in coal dust emissions will reduce
BNSF’s costs or for other reasons, it may file a complaint against BNSF’s
rates. <o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'>We
understand that shippers are concerned about BNSF’s incentives to consider the
costs of compliance, but as discussed above we believe that the cost of
spraying these selected topper agents is not unreasonable because the measure
is designed to promote reliable rail transportation services.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Further, BNSF does have an incentive to
consider compliance cost given the competitive environment PRB coal faces.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>We also explained that under the terms of the
tariff, BNSF must give equally effective, but less expensive, alternatives
proposed by a particular coal shipper fair consideration.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;
mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><u><span
style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Liability Provision<o:p></o:p></span></u></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;
mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;
mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>The tariff states that “[a]<span class=SpellE>ny</span>
product including topper agents, devices or appurtenance utilized by the
Shipper or Shipper’s mine agents to control the release of coal dust shall not
adversely impact railroad employees, property, locomotives or owned cars.”<a
style='mso-footnote-id:ftn184' href="#_ftn184" name="_ftnref184" title=""><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>[183]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>On opening, BNSF argues that this liability
provision is reasonable.<a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn185' href="#_ftn185"
name="_ftnref185" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>[184]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF claims that because s</span><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'>hippers and their mine agents control the loading
process, they should be responsible for consequences of loading practices;
according to BNSF, the fact that BNSF has established a safe harbor should not
shift shippers’ responsibility to load in a safe manner that does not harm BNSF
employees or property.<a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn186' href="#_ftn186"
name="_ftnref186" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[185]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF argues that the intent of the liability
provision is only to hold shippers responsible for negligent or improper use of
topper agents.<a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn187' href="#_ftn187"
name="_ftnref187" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[186]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Because BNSF tested the approved topper
agents to ensure they are not dangerous or injurious to railcars if properly
used, BNSF claims that no liability issues should arise assuming the topper
agents are properly used.<a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn188' href="#_ftn188"
name="_ftnref188" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[187]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF claims that it also intends that the
liability provision make clear that shippers proposing alternative methods must
show that the alternative will not be hazardous to BNSF employees or property,
which it asserts is a reasonable objective.<a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn189'
href="#_ftn189" name="_ftnref189" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[188]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'>Ameren
Missouri, Coal Shippers, and NCTA argue on opening that, because of BNSF’s role
in the Super Trial and selection of approved agents, BNSF should be responsible
for its own acts and applicable law should determine liability.<a
style='mso-footnote-id:ftn190' href="#_ftn190" name="_ftnref190" title=""><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[189]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Ameren Missouri further argues that the
provision conflicts with tort law principles.<a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn191'
href="#_ftn191" name="_ftnref191" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[190]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a> <span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'>On
reply, BNSF claims that the shippers misunderstand the liability provision.<a
style='mso-footnote-id:ftn192' href="#_ftn192" name="_ftnref192" title=""><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[191]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>According to BNSF, the liability provision
would hold shippers liable only for negligent or improper use of toppers
because the safe harbor topper agents are not dangerous when properly used.<a
style='mso-footnote-id:ftn193' href="#_ftn193" name="_ftnref193" title=""><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[192]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF argues that the case law cited by the
shipper parties is therefore not relevant because those cases involve
situations where a railroad attempted to avoid liability for its own
negligence.<a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn194' href="#_ftn194" name="_ftnref194"
title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:
footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:
EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[193]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>BNSF claims that under <u>Perishable
Freight Investigation</u>, 56<span style='letter-spacing:.7pt'>&nbsp;</span>I.C.C.<span
style='letter-spacing:.3pt'> </span>449,<span style='letter-spacing:.8pt'> </span>483<span
style='letter-spacing:.75pt'> </span><span style='mso-font-width:104%'>(1920),</span>
a railroad can establish a liability provision that holds shippers liable for
their own or their agents’ negligence.<a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn195'
href="#_ftn195" name="_ftnref195" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[194]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'>We
find that the liability provision is unreasonable because it is overbroad and
ambiguous.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>The provision states that
shippers are responsible for any adverse impact of coal dust containment
methods and does not distinguish between adverse impacts caused by the
negligence of shippers and their agents and the negligence of BNSF and third
parties:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-weight:
bold'>“[a]<span class=SpellE>ny</span> product including topper agents, devices
or appurtenance utilized by the Shipper or Shipper’s mine agents to control the
release of coal dust shall not adversely impact railroad employees, property,
locomotives or owned cars.”<a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn196' href="#_ftn196"
name="_ftnref196" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>[195]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span></span></span><u><span style='font-size:12.0pt;
mso-fareast-font-family:"MS Mincho";mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;
color:black'>See</span></u><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"MS Mincho";mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;color:black'> <u>Union Pac.
R.R.—Pet. for Declaratory Order</u>, FD&nbsp;35504, slip op. at 3-4 (STB served
Apr.&nbsp;30, 2013) (</span><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
Cambria;mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin;color:black'>declining to declare
indemnification provision in tariff reasonable</span><span style='font-size:
12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:"MS Mincho";mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;
color:black'>).<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span></span><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'>On its face, this tariff language, which applies to
both the currently approved safe harbor methods and any future approved
methods, goes beyond the principle described in <u>Perishable Freight
Investigation</u>.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF has failed to explain
how the language of the tariff can be reconciled with its stated intent that
the liability provision would only hold shippers liable for negligent or
improper use of toppers.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Accordingly, we
find this specific language—which is separable from the remainder of the tariff—to
be unreasonable.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>See</u> <u>Union
Pac. R.R.</u>, slip op. at 4 (“[L]<span class=SpellE>eaving</span> such an
ambiguity in place would not adequately inform . . . shippers what service terms
they are accepting under the tariff.”).<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'>This
action will not significantly affect either the quality of the human
environment or the conservation of energy resources.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='page-break-after:avoid'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;
mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:widow-orphan lines-together;
page-break-after:avoid;mso-outline-level:1'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;
mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>            </span><u>It
is ordered</u>:<o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:widow-orphan lines-together;
page-break-after:avoid'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in;mso-pagination:widow-orphan lines-together;
page-break-after:avoid'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt'>1.
We find that BNSF Price List 6041-B Item 100 is not an unreasonable practice
under 49&nbsp;U.S.C. §&nbsp;10702 except that tariff language stating that </span><span
style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>“[a]<span class=SpellE>ny</span>
product including topper agents, devices or appurtenance utilized by the
Shipper or Shipper’s mine agents to control the release of coal dust shall not
adversely impact railroad employees, property, locomotives or owned cars” is an
unreasonable practice.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF is ordered
to remove that language from the tariff.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> 
</span></span><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt'><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt'><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:3.0in;text-indent:-3.0in;page-break-after:
avoid;tab-stops:.5in 1.0in 1.5in 2.0in 2.5in 3.0in'><span style='font-size:
12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>            </span>2.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>This decision is effective January 12, 2014.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:widow-orphan lines-together;
page-break-after:avoid'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt'><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>            </span><span class=GramE>By the Board,<span
style='mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt'> Chairman Elliott, Vice Chairman <span
class=SpellE>Begeman</span>, and Commissioner <span class=SpellE>Mulvey</span>.</span></span></span><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote-list'><![if !supportFootnotes]><br clear=all>

<hr align=left size=1 width="33%">

<![endif]>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn1>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn1'
href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Symbol;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";
mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-char-type:symbol;mso-symbol-font-family:
Symbol'><span style='mso-char-type:symbol;mso-symbol-font-family:Symbol'>*</span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>This
corrected decision reflects the notice issued December&nbsp;17, 2013, which
revised a citation on page 30 of the decision.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn2>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn2'
href="#_ftnref2" name="_ftn2" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[1]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
style='color:black'>The digest constitutes no part of the decision of the Board
but has been prepared for the convenience of the reader.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>It may not be cited to or relied upon as
precedent.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Policy Statement on Plain
Language Digests in Decisions</u>, EP 696 (STB served Sept.&nbsp;2, 2010).</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn3>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn3'
href="#_ftnref3" name="_ftn3" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[2]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>The parties
designated certain information in this decision as confidential or highly
confidential.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>While we attempt to avoid
references to confidential or highly confidential information in Board
decisions, the Board reserves the right to rely upon and disclose such
information in decisions when necessary.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> 
</span>In this case, we determined that we could not present our findings with
respect to issues in this case without disclosing certain information. <o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn4>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn4'
href="#_ftnref4" name="_ftn4" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[3]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Notice of the
decision was published in the <u>Federal Register</u> on December&nbsp;4, 2009.
<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn5>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn5'
href="#_ftnref5" name="_ftn5" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[4]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>BNSF Opening 9.</span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>After
July&nbsp;14, 2011, BNSF made various revisions to the tariff and issued the
revised tariff under consideration here on September&nbsp;19, 2011 and
September&nbsp;26, 2013; the revisions after July&nbsp;14, 2011, appear to
consist of changes to the specific chemical suppression methods shippers may
use to comply with the tariff.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>See</u>
Western Coal Traffic League (WCTL), American Public Power Association (APPA), Edison
Electric Institute (EEI), and the National Rural Electric Cooperative
Association (NRECA) (collectively, Coal Shippers) Opening, Ex. 1 (including
several versions of the tariff issued after July&nbsp;14, 2011); BNSF Opening,
Ex. 1 (a version of the tariff issued partially on Sept. 19, 2011 and partially
on Sept.&nbsp;26, 2011).<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn6>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn6'
href="#_ftnref6" name="_ftn6" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[5]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF Opening,
Ex. 1 at 3.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn7>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn7'
href="#_ftnref7" name="_ftn7" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[6]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF refers to
five approved topper agents throughout its filings in this case, but it
explains that one approved agent may be applied either in concentrate or mixed
with water.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF Opening, V.S. <span
class=SpellE>Bobb</span> 4.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>See also</u>
BNSF Opening, Ex. 1 at 5. <o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn8>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn8'
href="#_ftnref8" name="_ftn8" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[7]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>In the tariff,
BNSF requires<span style='color:#2B2926'> </span>that coal dust releases be
partially reduced by loading coal cars with a modified loading chute that
grooms the top of the coal load into a “bread loaf” shape, a process the
parties call profiling.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF Opening,
Ex. 1 at 3-4.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn9>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:
ftn9' href="#_ftnref9" name="_ftn9" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[8]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>The liability
provision on its face applies to the approved safe harbor coal dust mitigation
measures and to any methods that may be approved in the future.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>As discussed later in this decision, we find
that the liability provision is unreasonable.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn10>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:
ftn10' href="#_ftnref10" name="_ftn10" title=""><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><span
style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[9]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'> <span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The original
procedural schedule was extended due to discovery disputes, which involved
Board review and disposition.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>See</u>
<u>Reasonableness of BNSF Ry. Coal Dust Mitigation Tariff Provisions</u>,
FD&nbsp;35557 (STB served June&nbsp;25, 2012) (denying interlocutory appeal of
discovery decision by Director, Office of Proceedings).<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn11>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn11'
href="#_ftnref11" name="_ftn11" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[10]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>On July&nbsp;17,
2012, the Board received a letter from U.S. Representative Rick Larsen
(D-Wash.) expressing his support for coal dust reduction measures in the
interest of public health.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn12>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn12'
href="#_ftnref12" name="_ftn12" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[11]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>In the
interest of a complete record and because no party will be prejudiced, we will
accept the late-filed supplement.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn13>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn13'
href="#_ftnref13" name="_ftn13" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[12]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>The Board
instituted this proceeding in response to the request of coal shippers that the
Board <span class=GramE>reopen</span> the <u>Coal Dust I</u> proceeding.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Ark. Elec. Coop. Corp.—Pet. for Declaratory
Order</u>, FD&nbsp;35305 et al. (STB served Nov.&nbsp;22, 2011).<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span></span><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>    </span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn14>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:
ftn14' href="#_ftnref14" name="_ftn14" title=""><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><span
style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[13]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'> <span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><u>Id.</u><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>The Board concluded in <u>Coal Dust I</u>,
slip op. at 5, that requiring BNSF to support the tariff change with a cost
benefit analysis did not fit the circumstances and the available evidence.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn15>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn15'
href="#_ftnref15" name="_ftn15" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[14]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>See, e.g.</u>,
AECC Opening 7-12, V.S. Nelson 30-31.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn16>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn16'
href="#_ftnref16" name="_ftn16" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[15]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Coal Shippers
state that they disagree with the Board’s <u>Coal Dust I</u> analysis to the
extent that it found BNSF could pursue containment rather than maintenance to
alleviate coal dust loss, and Coal Shippers incorporate WCTL’s filings from the
<u>Coal Dust</u> I proceeding by reference.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> 
</span><u>See</u> Coal Shippers Reply 25.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn17>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn17'
href="#_ftnref17" name="_ftn17" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[16]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>AECC Opening, V.S. Nelson 30-31; AECC Reply 22; AECC Rebuttal 13.</span><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn18>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn18'
href="#_ftnref18" name="_ftn18" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[17]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>AECC Reply 19-22; AECC Rebuttal 14; Coal Shippers Reply 25 n.84.</span><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Coal Shippers also argue that USDOT’s
evidence was not proper rebuttal.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>Coal Shippers Reply 25 n.84.</span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> 
</span>However, they waived that argument in <u>Coal Dust I</u> by not moving
to strike the material they now claim was improper or otherwise seeking an
opportunity to respond.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn19>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn19'
href="#_ftnref19" name="_ftn19" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[18]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>BNSF Reply 16 n.8; BNSF Rebuttal 6 n.6; UP Reply 4 n.8.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn20>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn20'
href="#_ftnref20" name="_ftn20" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[19]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>BNSF Rebuttal 6.</span> <o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn21>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn21'
href="#_ftnref21" name="_ftn21" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[20]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE><u>Id.</u> at 6 &amp; nn.6-10.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn22>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn22'
href="#_ftnref22" name="_ftn22" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[21]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>USDOT Opening 4-5; USDOT Rebuttal 2-3.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn23>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn23'
href="#_ftnref23" name="_ftn23" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[22]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>USDOT Rebuttal
2-4.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn24>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn24'
href="#_ftnref24" name="_ftn24" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[23]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF Rebuttal
6; UP Rebuttal 3-4.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn25>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn25'
href="#_ftnref25" name="_ftn25" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[24]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF Rebuttal
6 &amp; nn.6, 8-10 (citing, for example, F.N. <span class=SpellE>Okonta</span>,
<u>Frictional Resistance of Coal Dust Fouled Uniformly Graded Aggregates</u>, 7
<u>Int’l J. of Physical Sciences</u>, 2960, 2969 (2012); <span class=SpellE>Hai</span>
Huang &amp; <span class=SpellE>Erol</span> <span class=SpellE>Tutumluer</span>,
<u>Discrete Element Modeling for Fouled Railroad Ballast</u>, 25 <u>Constr.
&amp; Bldg. Materials</u> 3306, 3306 (2011); Office of Research &amp; Dev., U.S.
Dept. of Transp. Fed. R.R. Admin., <u>Subsurface Evaluation of Ry. Track Using
Ground Penetrating Radar</u> (2009)). <o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn26>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn26'
href="#_ftnref26" name="_ftn26" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[25]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>See</u>
AECC Opening, V.S. Nelson 30-31.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn27>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn27'
href="#_ftnref27" name="_ftn27" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[26]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>AECC Opening,
App. H BNSF Coal Dust II 00305910-11; AECC Supplement to Opening, App. <span
class=GramE>I UP-AECC-00006349-52.</span> <o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn28>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn28'
href="#_ftnref28" name="_ftn28" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[27]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>AECC Supplement to Opening, App.</span> <span class=GramE>I
UP-AECC-00006351-52.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn29>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn29'
href="#_ftnref29" name="_ftn29" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[28]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>See</u> AECC
Supplement to Opening, App. <span class=GramE>I <span class=SpellE>at</span>
UP-AECC-00006349-52.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn30>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn30'
href="#_ftnref30" name="_ftn30" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[29]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=SpellE><u>E.g</u></span><span class=GramE><u>,,</u></span> <u>Coal Dust I</u>,
slip op. at 7 (citing BNSF Opening, V.S. <span class=SpellE>Tutumluer</span>, <u>Ark.
Elec. Coop. Corp.—Pet. for Declaratory Order</u>, FD&nbsp;35305; BNSF Rebuttal,
V.S. <span class=SpellE>Tutumluer</span>, <u>Ark. Elec. Coop. Corp.—Pet. for
Declaratory Order</u>, FD&nbsp;35305).<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn31>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn31'
href="#_ftnref31" name="_ftn31" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[30]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>See</u>
USDOT Reply 2, <u>Ark. Elec. Coop. Corp.—Pet. for Declaratory Order</u>,
FD&nbsp;35305. <o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn32>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn32'
href="#_ftnref32" name="_ftn32" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[31]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>See</u>
USDOT Rebuttal 2-3, <u>Ark. Elec. Coop. Corp.—Pet. for Declaratory Order</u>,
FD&nbsp;35305.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn33>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn33'
href="#_ftnref33" name="_ftn33" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[32]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn34>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn34'
href="#_ftnref34" name="_ftn34" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[33]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'> <span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span
class=GramE><u>Id.</u> at 3.</span> <span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn35>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn35'
href="#_ftnref35" name="_ftn35" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[34]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>AECC and Coal Shippers claim that the Board
should not have relied on USDOT’s opinion because the engineering texts and
research by USDOT’s Volpe National Transportation Systems Center cited by USDOT
in its rebuttal in the <u>Coal Dust I</u> proceeding did not discuss coal
dust.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>USDOT has staff experts in rail
ballast and track geometry, and brought one of them, Dr. <span class=SpellE>Sussman</span>,
to the <u>Coal Dust I</u> proceeding’s oral hearing held July 29, 2010.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span class=GramE>Oral Argument Tr., 10, July
29, 2010, <u>Ark. Elec. Coop. Corp.—Pet. for Declaratory Order</u>,
FD&nbsp;35305 (available at <span style='font-size:10.0pt'><a
href="http://stb.dot.gov/TransAndStatements.nsf/transcriptsandstatements?openview"><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'>http://stb.dot.gov/TransAndStatements.nsf/transcriptsandstatements?openview</span></a></span>
(last visited Dec.&nbsp;13, 2013).</span> </span><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='font-size:12.0pt'>USDOT’s opinion
that coal dust is a pernicious ballast <span class=SpellE>foulant</span> is
based on the physical characteristics of coal dust and its interaction with
ballast and rain water.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>AECC and Coal
Shippers have not offered evidence that refutes the engineering and physical
facts about coal dust presented by USDOT.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> 
</span>The engineering texts submitted by USDOT provide general background on
track mechanisms and support USDOT’s analysis.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>     </span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn36>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn36'
href="#_ftnref36" name="_ftn36" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[35]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>AECC Opening
7-12, V.S. Nelson 13-21; AECC Reply 5-6, 12-13; AECC Rebuttal 3-10, V.S. Nelson
27-32.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn37>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn37'
href="#_ftnref37" name="_ftn37" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[36]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>BNSF Reply 13; BNSF Rebuttal 5; UP Reply 5.</span> <o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn38>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn38'
href="#_ftnref38" name="_ftn38" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[37]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>USDOT Opening 6.</span> <o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn39>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn39'
href="#_ftnref39" name="_ftn39" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[38]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>USDOT Rebuttal
1-2.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn40>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn40'
href="#_ftnref40" name="_ftn40" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[39]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>AECC Reply 26, <u>Ark. Elec. Coop. Corp.—Pet. for Declaratory Order</u>,
FD&nbsp;35305; AECC Rebuttal 17-18, <u>Ark. Elec. Coop. Corp.—Pet. for
Declaratory Order</u>, FD&nbsp;35305.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn41>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn41'
href="#_ftnref41" name="_ftn41" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[40]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>Coal Shippers Opening 19.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn42>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn42'
href="#_ftnref42" name="_ftn42" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[41]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn43>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn43'
href="#_ftnref43" name="_ftn43" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[42]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF Opening,
V.S. <span class=SpellE>Carré</span> &amp; Murphy 9-13 (citing, <u>e.g.</u>,
Environment Canada, <u>Coal Dust Control Recommended Practices for Loading,
Unloading and Transporting Coal by Rail</u>, at 11, 21 (1986); QR Network, <u>Coal
Dust Management Plan</u> (2010)). <o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn44>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn44'
href="#_ftnref44" name="_ftn44" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[43]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u> at
11-12.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn45>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn45'
href="#_ftnref45" name="_ftn45" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[44]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u> at
12-13.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn46>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn46'
href="#_ftnref46" name="_ftn46" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[45]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u> at
9-11(citing, <u>e.g.</u>, K.H. <span class=SpellE>Nimerick</span> &amp; G.P <span
class=SpellE>Laflin</span>, <u>In-Transit Wind Erosion Losses of Coal and
Method of Control</u>, 31 <u>Mining Engineering</u> 1236, 1236-40 (1979); M. <span
class=SpellE>Djukic</span> &amp; J.H Planner, <u>Reducing Coal Dust Emission
from Wagons</u>, (2011) (available at
http://www.bulk-solids-handling.com/safety_environment/emission_control/articles/312716/
(last visited Dec. 13, 2013)).<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn47>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn47'
href="#_ftnref47" name="_ftn47" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[46]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Body chemical
treatments are applied to the coal before the coal is loaded into the
railcars.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF Opening, V.S. <span
class=SpellE>VanHook</span> 8.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>In
contrast, topper agents are topical chemical treatments applied to the coal
after the coal is loaded into the railcars.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> 
</span><span class=GramE>BNSF Opening 15-16.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn48>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn48'
href="#_ftnref48" name="_ftn48" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[47]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF Opening,
V.S. <span class=SpellE>VanHook</span> 7-12.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> 
</span>None of the body chemical treatments evaluated in the Super Trials were
found to be effective.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u> at
14-15.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn49>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn49'
href="#_ftnref49" name="_ftn49" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[48]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE><u>Id.</u> at 11.</span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>A
passive collector is a device that is mounted on the rear sill of an individual
coal car.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>The collector allows air
containing dust particles to pass through the device as the train moves and
then deposits the dust into a removable container inside the collector. <span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><u>Id.</u> at 10-11.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn50>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn50'
href="#_ftnref50" name="_ftn50" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[49]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE><u>Id.</u> at 11.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn51>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn51'
href="#_ftnref51" name="_ftn51" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[50]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u> <o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn52>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn52'
href="#_ftnref52" name="_ftn52" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[51]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE><u>Id.</u> at 11; BNSF Reply, V.S. <span class=SpellE>VanHook</span>
13.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn53>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn53'
href="#_ftnref53" name="_ftn53" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[52]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF Opening,
V.S. <span class=SpellE>VanHook</span> 11.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn54>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn54'
href="#_ftnref54" name="_ftn54" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[53]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE><u>Id.</u> at 8.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn55>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn55'
href="#_ftnref55" name="_ftn55" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[54]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u> <o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn56>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn56'
href="#_ftnref56" name="_ftn56" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[55]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE><u>Id.</u> at 9.</span> <span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The
selection committee included coal shippers and coal producers, and BNSF did not
have voting rights on the committee. <span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><u>Id.</u>
<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn57>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn57'
href="#_ftnref57" name="_ftn57" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[56]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE><u>Id.</u> at 12.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn58>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn58'
href="#_ftnref58" name="_ftn58" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[57]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn59>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn59'
href="#_ftnref59" name="_ftn59" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[58]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>Coal Shippers Opening 19, V.S. <span class=SpellE>Viz</span> 8-12.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn60>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn60'
href="#_ftnref60" name="_ftn60" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[59]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>Coal Shippers Opening 19, V.S. <span class=SpellE>Viz</span> 10-11.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn61>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn61'
href="#_ftnref61" name="_ftn61" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[60]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Coal Shippers
Opening, V.S. <span class=SpellE>Viz</span> 12-15.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn62>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn62'
href="#_ftnref62" name="_ftn62" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[61]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>Coal Shippers Opening 19, V.S. <span class=SpellE>Viz</span> 15-19.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn63>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn63'
href="#_ftnref63" name="_ftn63" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[62]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>Coal Shippers Opening 17-22.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn64>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn64'
href="#_ftnref64" name="_ftn64" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[63]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Coal Shippers
Reply 8-9.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn65>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn65'
href="#_ftnref65" name="_ftn65" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[64]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF Reply,
V.S. Emmitt 5.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn66>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn66'
href="#_ftnref66" name="_ftn66" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[65]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u> at
5-6.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn67>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn67'
href="#_ftnref67" name="_ftn67" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[66]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE><u>Id.</u> at 6.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn68>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn68'
href="#_ftnref68" name="_ftn68" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[67]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE><u>Id.</u> at 3-4 &amp; n.1.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn69>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn69'
href="#_ftnref69" name="_ftn69" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[68]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>AECC Opening 20, V.S. Nelson 46-48; Coal Shippers Opening 19, V.S. <span
class=SpellE>Viz</span> 22-26.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn70>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn70'
href="#_ftnref70" name="_ftn70" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[69]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Coal Shippers
Opening 20, V.S. <span class=SpellE><span class=GramE>Viz</span></span><span
class=GramE><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>22</span>.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn71>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn71'
href="#_ftnref71" name="_ftn71" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[70]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>AECC Opening,
V.S. Nelson 48-50.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn72>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn72'
href="#_ftnref72" name="_ftn72" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[71]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u> at
51-52.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn73>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn73'
href="#_ftnref73" name="_ftn73" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[72]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF Reply
11-12, V.S. Emmitt 10-12. <o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn74>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn74'
href="#_ftnref74" name="_ftn74" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[73]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF Reply
15-16, V.S. <span class=SpellE>VanHook</span> 14.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn75>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn75'
href="#_ftnref75" name="_ftn75" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[74]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF Reply 15,
V.S. Emmitt 8.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn76>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn76'
href="#_ftnref76" name="_ftn76" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[75]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF Reply,
V.S. <span class=SpellE>VanHook</span> 14.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn77>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn77'
href="#_ftnref77" name="_ftn77" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[76]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u> at
12-13.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn78>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn78'
href="#_ftnref78" name="_ftn78" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[77]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>Coal Shippers Opening 20, V.S. <span class=SpellE>Viz</span> 33-35;
AECC Opening 17-18, V.S. Nelson 40-43.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn79>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn79'
href="#_ftnref79" name="_ftn79" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[78]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>Coal Shippers Opening, V.S. <span class=SpellE>Viz</span> 33-35;
AECC Opening 19, V.S. Nelson 44-45.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn80>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn80'
href="#_ftnref80" name="_ftn80" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[79]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>AECC Opening 13, V.S. Nelson 45-46.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn81>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn81'
href="#_ftnref81" name="_ftn81" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[80]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>AECC Opening 19; V.S. Nelson 43-44.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn82>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn82'
href="#_ftnref82" name="_ftn82" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[81]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF Reply,
V.S. Emmitt 6-8.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn83>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn83'
href="#_ftnref83" name="_ftn83" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[82]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE><u>Id.</u> at 7.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn84>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn84'
href="#_ftnref84" name="_ftn84" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[83]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE><u>Id.</u> at 9.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn85>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn85'
href="#_ftnref85" name="_ftn85" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[84]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE><u>Id.</u> at 8.</span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn86>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn86'
href="#_ftnref86" name="_ftn86" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[85]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE><u>Id.</u> at 9.</span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn87>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn87'
href="#_ftnref87" name="_ftn87" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[86]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>AECC claims
that a series of about 40 test trains ran below 40 miles per hour while
non-test trains ran above 40 miles per hour.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> 
</span>AECC Opening, Nelson V.S. 44-45.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> 
</span>The evidence, while somewhat ambiguous because the columns and rows of
the tables are not labeled, <u>see</u> AECC Supplement to Opening Evidence,
App. H, BNSF Coal Dust II 00311350-63, appears to show that a series of trains
ran at approximately 35 to 39 miles per hour.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> 
</span>However, given that the</span><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:
10.0pt'> evidence </span><span style='font-size:12.0pt'>does not show</span><span
style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt'> the speeds of all 115
trains</span><span style='font-size:12.0pt'> in the Super Trial passive
collector tests, we cannot find that there was a consistent effort to operate
test trains below normal operating speed, particularly given that there does
not appear to have been a substantial decrease below 40 miles per hour.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Also, because the passive collector tests
show relative results, the tests still indicate that the topper agents achieve
the claimed performance levels.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn88>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn88'
href="#_ftnref88" name="_ftn88" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[87]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>AECC Opening,
V.S. Nelson 21-26.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn89>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn89'
href="#_ftnref89" name="_ftn89" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[88]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>AECC Reply
14-15, V.S. Nelson 6-11; <u>see also</u> AECC Rebuttal 17, V.S. Nelson 12-16. <o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn90>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn90'
href="#_ftnref90" name="_ftn90" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[89]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>BNSF Rebuttal, V.S. <span class=SpellE>Carré</span> and Murphy, Ex.
1, worksheet “Passive Collector Dust Weights for Trains Cited by Mr. Nelson
Worksheet – HIGHLY CONFIDENTIAL.”</span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> 
</span>Further, BNSF presented evidence that many of the railcars in the
photographs were treated with topper agents that were not approved, and that the
photographs do not show a problem or are unclear.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF Rebuttal, V.S. <span class=SpellE>Carré</span>
and Murphy 2-3.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn91>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn91'
href="#_ftnref91" name="_ftn91" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[90]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF Rebuttal,
V.S. <span class=SpellE>Carré</span> and Murphy 3-4.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn92>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn92'
href="#_ftnref92" name="_ftn92" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[91]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u> at 6-8.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn93>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn93'
href="#_ftnref93" name="_ftn93" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[92]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE><u>Id.</u> at Ex. 1 and worksheet “Passive Collector Dust Weights
for Trains Cited by Mr. Nelson Worksheet – HIGHLY CONFIDENTIAL.”</span><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>The test results rebut AECC’s claims that the
use of profiling is incompatible with application of topper agents.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>See</u> AECC Opening 12-13.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>If profiling and topper agents were
incompatible as the shipper parties argue, the test results would not have
shown the significant and consistent reductions in coal dust emissions.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn94>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn94'
href="#_ftnref94" name="_ftn94" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[93]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>NCTA Opening 7-9.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn95>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn95'
href="#_ftnref95" name="_ftn95" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[94]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u> at
8-9.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn96>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn96'
href="#_ftnref96" name="_ftn96" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[95]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>Ameren Missouri Opening 4.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn97>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn97'
href="#_ftnref97" name="_ftn97" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[96]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>AECC Reply
8-10.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn98>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn98'
href="#_ftnref98" name="_ftn98" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[97]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u> at
8-9.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn99>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn99'
href="#_ftnref99" name="_ftn99" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[98]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE><u>Id.</u> at 9.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn100>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn100'
href="#_ftnref100" name="_ftn100" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[99]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn101>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn101'
href="#_ftnref101" name="_ftn101" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[100]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>AECC Reply 10; WCTL Opening 37.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn102>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn102'
href="#_ftnref102" name="_ftn102" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[101]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>WCTL Opening 37-38.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn103>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn103'
href="#_ftnref103" name="_ftn103" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[102]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>BNSF Opening 11; BNSF Reply 2-3; UP Opening 3; UP Reply 3.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn104>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn104'
href="#_ftnref104" name="_ftn104" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[103]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF Reply <span
class=GramE>25 n.14</span>; <u>see</u> <u>also</u> BNSF Opening, V.S. <span
class=SpellE>Carré</span> &amp; Murphy 5.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn105>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn105'
href="#_ftnref105" name="_ftn105" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[104]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF Reply,
V.S. <span class=SpellE>Carré</span> &amp; Murphy 4 n.3.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn106>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn106'
href="#_ftnref106" name="_ftn106" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[105]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>USDOT Opening 6-7.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn107>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn107'
href="#_ftnref107" name="_ftn107" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[106]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Because, as
discussed below, we conclude that the liability provision is unreasonable on
other grounds, we need not consider whether it affects the certainty provided
by the safe harbor.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn108>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:
ftn108' href="#_ftnref108" name="_ftn108" title=""><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><span
style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[107]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'> <span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span
class=GramE>BSNF Price List 6041-B, Item 100, Para.</span> <span class=GramE>3.A</span>.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn109>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:
ftn109' href="#_ftnref109" name="_ftn109" title=""><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><span
style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[108]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'> Coal Shippers compare the alleged uncertainty created
by the revised tariff provision to the uncertainty created by the previous
version of the tariff, <u>Coal Dust I</u>, slip op. at 12-14, but the
comparison is fundamentally flawed.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>The
revised tariff does not contain the types of problems that caused the Board to
find the prior tariff unreasonable –such as an emissions standard inadequately
supported by evidence, unexplained issues with the measurement system for the
emissions standard, and a lack of guidance on compliance methods.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>The overwhelming evidence of uncertainty
present in the <u>Coal Dust I</u> proceeding <span class=GramE>is</span> not
present here.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn110>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn110'
href="#_ftnref110" name="_ftn110" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[109]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>“Three-inch
coal” refers to coal that has been crushed to pieces that fit between rollers
spaced three inches apart.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF Reply,
V.S. Emmitt 13.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Most mines in the PRB
crush the coal using rollers spaced two inches apart, although some mines now
use rollers spaced three inches apart.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>See</u>
<u>id.</u> <span class=GramE>at</span> 14.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> 
</span>The shippers’ claim is that less dust is created when crushing
three-inch coal.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span class=GramE><u>Id.</u>
at 13.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn111>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn111'
href="#_ftnref111" name="_ftn111" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[110]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>Coal Shippers Opening 22-23.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn112>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn112'
href="#_ftnref112" name="_ftn112" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[111]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE><u>Id.</u> at 23.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn113>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn113'
href="#_ftnref113" name="_ftn113" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[112]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>AECC Opening 15-16, V.S. Nelson 27-30.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn114>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn114'
href="#_ftnref114" name="_ftn114" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[113]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>AECC Opening 14-15.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn115>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn115'
href="#_ftnref115" name="_ftn115" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[114]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>AECC Opening,
V.S. Nelson 55-56.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn116>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn116'
href="#_ftnref116" name="_ftn116" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[115]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>AECC Reply 6; AECC Rebuttal 12.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn117>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn117'
href="#_ftnref117" name="_ftn117" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[116]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>AECC Reply 7.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn118>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn118'
href="#_ftnref118" name="_ftn118" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[117]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u> at
18-19.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn119>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn119'
href="#_ftnref119" name="_ftn119" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[118]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>AECC Rebuttal
10-11.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn120>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn120'
href="#_ftnref120" name="_ftn120" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[119]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>AECC Rebuttal 11 n.6.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn121>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn121'
href="#_ftnref121" name="_ftn121" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[120]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>Coal Shippers Opening 23; Coal Shippers Reply 26-27; Coal Shippers
Rebuttal 22.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn122>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn122'
href="#_ftnref122" name="_ftn122" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[121]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Coal Shippers
and AECC argue that while BNSF claims in this proceeding that safe harbor
compliance will not affect its maintenance costs, BNSF claimed in the <u>Coal
Dust I</u> <span class=GramE>proceeding</span> that coal dust containment would
reduce its maintenance costs.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Coal
Shippers Rebuttal 18-19; AECC Rebuttal 10-11.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> 
</span>We do not need to determine whether compliance will reduce BNSF’s
maintenance costs to decide the issues in this proceeding.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>As we explain, we conclude that containment
is a reasonable strategy regardless of whether it reduces BNSF’s maintenance
costs.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>However, if the safe harbor does
reduce maintenance costs, the savings would only further justify containment.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn123>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn123'
href="#_ftnref123" name="_ftn123" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[122]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF Opening,
V.S. <span class=SpellE>VanHook</span> 17.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> 
</span>This estimate is based on a typical movement of about 1,000 miles.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Id.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></u></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn124>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn124'
href="#_ftnref124" name="_ftn124" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[123]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>WCTL Opening, V.S. Crowley 5-6, <u>Ark. Elec. Coop. Corp.—Pet. for
Declaratory Order</u>, FD&nbsp;35305.</span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> 
</span>This estimate was based on a study that WCTL described as the most
credible, comprehensive, and detailed of the cost estimates produced by BNSF in
discovery during that proceeding.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE><u>Id.</u> at 6.</span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>WCTL
stated that the cost would vary by mine size, with higher costs at smaller
mines.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u> at 5-6. <o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn125>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn125'
href="#_ftnref125" name="_ftn125" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[124]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>Coal Shippers Opening 24 n.59.</span><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>In this proceeding, NCTA estimate the annual
cost of topper application to be $50 million to $150 million.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span class=GramE><u>Id.</u> at 24.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn126>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn126'
href="#_ftnref126" name="_ftn126" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[125]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF Reply,
V.S. Emmitt 13-16.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn127>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn127'
href="#_ftnref127" name="_ftn127" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[126]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u> at
13-14.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn128>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn128'
href="#_ftnref128" name="_ftn128" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[127]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>Coal Shippers Opening 22-23.</span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> 
</span>Coal Shippers do not give an average result for one of the four trials;
instead they state that the reductions for that trial ranged from 46% to
67%.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span class=GramE><u>Id.</u> at 23.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn129>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn129'
href="#_ftnref129" name="_ftn129" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[128]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>See</u>
AECC Opening, V.S. Nelson 55-56.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn130>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn130'
href="#_ftnref130" name="_ftn130" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[129]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>AECC argues
that BNSF should have addressed cost effectiveness issues on opening and that
by not doing so it violated Board precedent that requires it to submit its best
evidence on opening.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>AECC Reply 7-8
(citing <u>M&amp;G Polymers USA, LLC v. CSX Transp., Inc.</u>, NOR&nbsp;42123,
slip op. at 9 (STB served Sept.&nbsp;27, 2012).<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> 
</span>We do not find that BNSF inappropriately waited until reply to address
arguments that had not yet been made at the time of its opening.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>We also note that BNSF argued on opening that
the safe harbor is cost effective.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>See</u>
BNSF Opening 19-20.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn131>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn131'
href="#_ftnref131" name="_ftn131" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[130]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>AECC Opening 23-24, V.S. Nelson 34-35, 53-54; AECC Reply 15 n.5.</span><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>The issues that AECC claims regarding topper
agent residues are separate from other asserted impacts.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn132>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn132'
href="#_ftnref132" name="_ftn132" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[131]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'> <span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><u>See</u>
AECC Opening, V.S. Nelson 53 n.128.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn133>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:
ftn133' href="#_ftnref133" name="_ftn133" title=""><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><span
style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[132]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>The material consists
of statements by BNSF that it would consider overspray issues in the testing
process, a statement by a utility that it would not participate in the tests
because the topper agents could make the outside of the cars slippery, and
unclear photographs from various sources.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> 
</span><u>See</u> <u>id.</u><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn134>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn134'
href="#_ftnref134" name="_ftn134" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[133]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>We also
conclude that AECC has not proven its claims regarding other problems with
topper agents.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>The email cited by AECC
is inconclusive as to whether the combustion issue it describes was resolved or
whether it was experienced by any other utilities.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>See</u> <u>id.</u> <span class=GramE>at</span>
53.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>However, we believe that, if
combustion problems were experienced to any great extent, the evidence of those
problems would be part of the record in this proceeding.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>We do not consider the claim of damage to paint
on railcars, if true, a serious issue that would overcome the advantages of the
safe harbor.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>See</u> <u>id.</u> <span
class=GramE>at</span> 53 n.129.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Finally,
the email that AECC cites in support of its claim that chemical residue was
found in ash settling ponds is ambiguous because it is not clear that the
subject of the email is ash settling ponds and for that reason alone we cannot
draw any conclusions from it.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>See</u>
<u>id.</u> <span class=GramE>at</span> 53.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> 
</span>While AECC also cites an email that contains a “Draft Commercial Rail
Car Dust Mitigation Program Plan,” the plan merely states that some facilities
ban certain chemicals due to ash settling pond issues, but it does not
establish that any of the approved topper agents contain such chemicals.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>See</u> <u>id.</u> <span class=GramE>at</span>
App. H, BNSF Coal Dust II 00117328-29.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn135>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn135'
href="#_ftnref135" name="_ftn135" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[134]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'> <span class=GramE>AECC Opening 21-22.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn136>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn136'
href="#_ftnref136" name="_ftn136" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[135]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u> at
21-23.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn137>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn137'
href="#_ftnref137" name="_ftn137" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[136]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE><u>Id.</u> at 22.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn138>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn138'
href="#_ftnref138" name="_ftn138" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[137]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u> <o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn139>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn139'
href="#_ftnref139" name="_ftn139" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[138]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>NCTA Opening 9.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn140>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn140'
href="#_ftnref140" name="_ftn140" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[139]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF Reply,
V.S. <span class=SpellE>Bobb</span> 3.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn141>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn141'
href="#_ftnref141" name="_ftn141" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[140]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn142>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn142'
href="#_ftnref142" name="_ftn142" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[141]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn143>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn143'
href="#_ftnref143" name="_ftn143" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[142]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn144>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn144'
href="#_ftnref144" name="_ftn144" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[143]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>Coal Shippers Opening 33-36; NCTA Opening 10.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn145>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn145'
href="#_ftnref145" name="_ftn145" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[144]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>Coal Shippers Opening 33-34; NCTA Opening 10.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn146>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn146'
href="#_ftnref146" name="_ftn146" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[145]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Coal Shippers
Opening 34 (citing <u>Birmingham Rail &amp; Locomotive Co. v. Aberdeen &amp;
Rockfish R.R.</u>, 358 I.C.C. 606, 608 (1978), and <u>Radioactive Materials,
Special Train Service, Nationwide</u> (<u>Radioactive Materials</u>), 359
I.C.C. 70, 73 (1978)).<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn147>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn147'
href="#_ftnref147" name="_ftn147" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[146]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE><u>Id.</u> at 35.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn148>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn148'
href="#_ftnref148" name="_ftn148" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[147]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u> at
35 (citing <u>Ark. Elec. Coop. Corp.—Pet. for Declaratory Order</u>,
FD&nbsp;35305, slip op. at 1 (STB served Dec.&nbsp;1, 2009)).<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn149>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn149'
href="#_ftnref149" name="_ftn149" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[148]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE><u>Id.</u> at 36.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn150>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn150'
href="#_ftnref150" name="_ftn150" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[149]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>NCTA Opening 10-12.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn151>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn151'
href="#_ftnref151" name="_ftn151" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[150]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>BNSF Opening 21-24.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn152>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn152'
href="#_ftnref152" name="_ftn152" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[151]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>UP Reply 10.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn153>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn153'
href="#_ftnref153" name="_ftn153" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[152]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>We note
parties’ concerns about light loading fees here.<span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span class=GramE>Ameren Missouri Opening 3;
AECC Opening, V.S. Nelson 54.</span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> 
</span>Although shippers do not fully explain the issue, as we understand it,
they are concerned about established fees they may incur for under-loading
their cars due to topper application.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> 
</span>Should the situation actually arise, we will consider shippers’
complaints.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn154>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn154'
href="#_ftnref154" name="_ftn154" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[153]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>BNSF Opening 24.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn155>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:
ftn155' href="#_ftnref155" name="_ftn155" title=""><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[154]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></a><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span><span style='font-size:12.0pt'>NCTA argues that
the lack of enforcement measures creates uncertainty for shippers that choose
to opt out of the safe harbor.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>NCTA Opening 8-9.</span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> 
</span>However, the purpose of the tariff is to achieve compliance, not to put
a price on noncompliance.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>The safe
harbor provides certainty for shippers, and shippers can seek approval of
alternative compliance methods. </span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn156>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn156'
href="#_ftnref156" name="_ftn156" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[155]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>Coal Shippers Opening 24-33; AECC Reply 15-17; NCTA Opening 13-14.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn157>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn157'
href="#_ftnref157" name="_ftn157" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[156]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Coal Shippers
Opening 24-25 (citing 49 U.S.C. §&nbsp;11706; <u>Consignees’ Obligation to
Unload Railcars in Compliance with Carriers’ Published Tariffs</u>, 340&nbsp;I.C.C.
405, 410 (1972); <u>Waste Material Dealers <span class=SpellE>Ass’n</span> of
Ark. v. Chi., Rock Island &amp; Pac. Ry.</u>, 226&nbsp;I.C.C. 683, 688 (1938)).<u>
<o:p></o:p></u></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn158>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn158'
href="#_ftnref158" name="_ftn158" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[157]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u> at
25 (citing <span class=SpellE><u>Balt</u></span><u>. &amp; Ohio R.R. v. United
States</u>, 391&nbsp;F. Supp. 249, 257 (E.D. Pa. 1975); <u>Radioactive
Materials</u></span><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt'>, </span><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'>359&nbsp;I.C.C. at 91; <u>Furnishing Suitable Cars for
Loading Flour and Other Grain Products</u>, 128&nbsp;I.C.C. 442, 444 (1927)).<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn159>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn159'
href="#_ftnref159" name="_ftn159" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[158]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u> at
25-27.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn160>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn160'
href="#_ftnref160" name="_ftn160" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[159]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u> at
27-28.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn161>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn161'
href="#_ftnref161" name="_ftn161" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[160]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u> at
28-29 (citing <u>Ind. Harbor Belt R.R. v. Gen. Am. Transp. Corp.</u>,
577&nbsp;F.2d 394, 400 (7th Cir. 1978); <u>Rail Fuel Surcharges</u>,
EP&nbsp;661, slip op. at 10-11 (STB served Jan.&nbsp;26, 2007)).<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn162>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn162'
href="#_ftnref162" name="_ftn162" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[161]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u> at
30-32.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn163>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn163'
href="#_ftnref163" name="_ftn163" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[162]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u> at
32-33.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn164>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn164'
href="#_ftnref164" name="_ftn164" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[163]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>AECC Reply 17,
V.S. Nelson 13-15.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn165>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn165'
href="#_ftnref165" name="_ftn165" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[164]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>AECC Reply,
V.S. Nelson 14.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn166>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn166'
href="#_ftnref166" name="_ftn166" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[165]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF Opening
25-26; UP Reply 7 (citing <u>Bd. of Trade of Chi. v. Abilene &amp; S. Ry.</u>,
220&nbsp;I.C.C. 753, 761 (1937); <u>Sw. Mo. Millers’ Club v. St. Louis &amp;
S.F. R.R.</u>, 26&nbsp;I.C.C. 245, 250 (1913); <u>Nat’l Wholesale Lumber
Dealers’ <span class=SpellE>Ass’n</span> v. Atl. Coast Line R.R.</u>,
14&nbsp;I.C.C. 154, 163 (1908)).<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn167>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn167'
href="#_ftnref167" name="_ftn167" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[166]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>BNSF Opening 25-26<span style='mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt'>.</span></span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn168>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn168'
href="#_ftnref168" name="_ftn168" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[167]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF Reply
21-22.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn169>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn169'
href="#_ftnref169" name="_ftn169" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[168]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE><u>Id.</u> at 21.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn170>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn170'
href="#_ftnref170" name="_ftn170" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[169]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>UP Reply 7-8.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn171>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn171'
href="#_ftnref171" name="_ftn171" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[170]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF Reply
22-24.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn172>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn172'
href="#_ftnref172" name="_ftn172" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[171]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u> at
22-23.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn173>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn173'
href="#_ftnref173" name="_ftn173" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[172]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE><u>Id.</u> at 24.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn174>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn174'
href="#_ftnref174" name="_ftn174" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[173]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF Reply, V.S.
<span class=SpellE>Bobb</span> 6-7.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn175>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn175'
href="#_ftnref175" name="_ftn175" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[174]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>Coal Shippers Reply 14.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn176>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn176'
href="#_ftnref176" name="_ftn176" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[175]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u> at
14-15.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn177>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn177'
href="#_ftnref177" name="_ftn177" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[176]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Coal Shippers
Rebuttal 12-13.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn178>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn178'
href="#_ftnref178" name="_ftn178" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[177]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u> at
13-14.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn179>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn179'
href="#_ftnref179" name="_ftn179" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[178]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE><u>Id.</u> at 14.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn180>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn180'
href="#_ftnref180" name="_ftn180" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[179]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u> <span
class=GramE>at 14 n.38</span>.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn181>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn181'
href="#_ftnref181" name="_ftn181" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[180]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u> at
18-19 (citing BNSF Reply, V.S. <span class=SpellE>VanHook</span> 32, <u>Ark.
Elec. Coop. Corp.—Pet. for Declaratory Order</u>, FD&nbsp;35305.)<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn182>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn182'
href="#_ftnref182" name="_ftn182" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[181]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>USDOT Opening 5.</span> <o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn183>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn183'
href="#_ftnref183" name="_ftn183" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[182]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Shippers have
not submitted evidence sufficient to prove an industry practice of carriers
paying for coal dust mitigation, and as explained above, carriers may require
shippers to undertake certain loading requirements at their own expense.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn184>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn184'
href="#_ftnref184" name="_ftn184" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:
footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[183]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt'><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF Opening, Ex. 1 at 3.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn185>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn185'
href="#_ftnref185" name="_ftn185" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[184]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>BNSF Opening 26-27.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn186>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn186'
href="#_ftnref186" name="_ftn186" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[185]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u> <o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn187>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn187'
href="#_ftnref187" name="_ftn187" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[186]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE><u>Id.</u> at 27.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn188>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn188'
href="#_ftnref188" name="_ftn188" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[187]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn189>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn189'
href="#_ftnref189" name="_ftn189" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[188]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn190>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn190'
href="#_ftnref190" name="_ftn190" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[189]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>Ameren Missouri Opening 4-7, 11-12; Coal Shippers Opening 38-39;
NCTA Opening 14-16.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn191>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn191'
href="#_ftnref191" name="_ftn191" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[190]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>Ameren Missouri Opening 4, 7-11.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn192>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn192'
href="#_ftnref192" name="_ftn192" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[191]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF Reply
27-28.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn193>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn193'
href="#_ftnref193" name="_ftn193" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[192]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE><u>Id.</u> at 28.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn194>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn194'
href="#_ftnref194" name="_ftn194" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[193]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><u>Id.</u><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn195>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn195'
href="#_ftnref195" name="_ftn195" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span
class=MsoFootnoteReference><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;
mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[194]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span
class=GramE>BNSF Reply 28.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<div style='mso-element:footnote' id=ftn196>

<p class=MsoFootnoteText style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:
6.0pt;margin-left:0in;text-indent:.5in'><a style='mso-footnote-id:ftn196'
href="#_ftnref196" name="_ftn196" title=""><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt'><span style='mso-special-character:
footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=MsoFootnoteReference><span
style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[195]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt'><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>BNSF Opening, Ex. 1 at 3.<o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

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